The Development of Emotional Intelligence During Preadolescence and the Effect of SEL Program
Ministry of Science and Technology
Lab. of Socioemotional Development, Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University
Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University
emotional intelligence, self perception, school social-interpersonal adjustment
本計畫以Goleman(1995)對於特質情緒智能(trait emotional intelligence)的主張為基礎，同時參酌「學業、社交、情緒學習整合協會」(Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning)編製的一系列社會情緒學習（SEL）課程與其衍生之相關研究，建立一套從多個面向探討國小高年級學童情緒智能發展的測量系統。本測量系統有兩個目的：一為追蹤台灣學童在與情緒智能相關的各項社會適應面向於國小五、六年級兩年之間的發展；二為檢視在台灣許多小學的高年級入班教學多年、由「台灣芯福里情緒教育推廣協會」所推廣之兩年期社會情緒學習（SEL）教育課程的效果。從以上目標來看，其實本研究屬「介入評估研究」而非「調查研究」，僅有開始施行芯福里的介入課程前之五年級上學期的「前測」，可類屬調查研究資料。芯福里的課程共分四個主題，包括(1)情緒智能、(2)自我概念、(3)人際互動、與(4)問題解決。(1)情緒智能的測量為本人翻譯原用以測量大學生的情緒智能量表(Emotional Intelligence Scale, EIS)，並將其修改、刪題俾便符合國小高年級使用。(2)自我概念的測量為本人翻譯國外知名的兒童自我知覺量表(Self-Perception Profile for Children, SPPC)。(3)人際互動的測量則由本人自行發展出七向度的學校人際互動適應量表。(4)至於問題解決，其本質上便無法以自我報告測量到問題解決能力；故作法為請學童針對特定狀況寫出自己的解決之道（問答題），再由本人發展編碼系統、並訓練編碼者達成評分者間信度後才開始正式計分，故本資料非屬調查研究。此外，本研究雖也有加測其他變項，但都不是在課程實施前的第一波進行測量，亦即資料已被芯福里實施之SEL課程方案所「污染」，因此不宜算做調查資料。總結來說，本研究所上傳的資料包括國小五年級上學期兒童的(1)情緒智能、(2)自我知覺、(3)學校社會人際適應。
Based on Goleman’s trait emotional intelligence theory and the Social Emotional Learning program (SEL) proposed by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning, this project aims to develop a battery of assessments on emotional intelligence and related aspects of socioemotional development in late childhood. The goal of this study is twofold. The first is to follow up children from the start of fifth grade to the end of sixth grade to investigate the development of emotional intelligence and related abilities during late childhood. The second is to examine the effect of an SEL program for fifth and sixth graders that has been launched for years by Taiwan Happiness Village Emotion Education Association. Regarding the above ends, this study is not at all a survey research. Only the first-wave data collected before the start of the two-year SEL program in the fall semester of 5th grade can be regarded as “survey.” This SEL program consists of four themes. They are children’s (1) emotional intelligence, (2) self-perception, (3) interpersonal adjustment, and (4) problem-solving skills. (1) To measure children’s emotional intelligence, the PI translated and adapted the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), which is originally designed to assess college students. (2) To measure children’s self-concept, the internationally renowned Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) was translated and used. (3) To measure interpersonal adjustment, a new assessment tool of Interpersonal Adjustment Scale was developed by the PI. (4) As for problem-solving skills, since it is almost impossible to assess the quality of problem-solving by self-report, the PI developed essay questions for children to write down their responses. The PI also developed a coding scheme for evaluating the quality of problem-solving. Upon having acquired acceptable intercoder reliabilities, each child’s responses were coded. Therefore, there is no “survey” data available for the problem-solving tasks. Although this study has also assessed other variables using questionnaires, none of them was assessed before the SEL program started. That is, these data were more or less “contaminated” by the intervention and not qualified to be regarded as survey data. In summary, this study will upload children’s first-wave emotional intelligence, self-perception, and school social-interpersonal adjustment as survey data.