科技部專題研究計畫主持人
MOST-107-2628-H-110-001-SS3
談笑封侯?競選廣告中候選人笑容強度對選民反應之影響及廣告內、外 部因素之搭配
Do smiles facilitate success in elections? The impact of candidate smile intensity in campaign advertising on voter responses and the matching effects between it and various ad factors
科技部
Ministry of Science and Technology
國立中山大學
National Sun Yat-sen University
周軒逸
Hsuan-Yi Chou
行銷傳播管理研究所
Institute of Marketing Communication
周軒逸
教授
(07)5252000#4966
hsuanyi@mail.nsysu.edu.tw
計畫執行期間起:2018-08-01
計畫執行期間迄:2021-07-31
2018-11-08
2021-10-06
年滿20歲、具有投票資格的選民
1
007
01
視覺線索;笑容強度;競選廣告;社會判斷;基模理論;解釋水平理論
visual cues;smile intensity;campaign advertising;social judgment;schema theory;construal level theory
政治溝通過程中出現的視覺線索(無論是外貌、表情、眼神凝視方向、手勢等)對於觀眾的政治人物知覺、印象形成、評價、甚或投票決策具有重要的影響。笑容表情被廣泛地視作一種行銷工具,雖然選舉時,許多候選人在競選廣告中展露笑容,但仍鮮少研究推敲候選人笑容的豐富性和細微差異,並分析不同笑容所可能帶來的影響。是否笑得越大,效果越好呢?本研究深入比較微笑和燦笑這兩種不同強度的笑容,如何透過社會判斷 (知覺能力和溫暖) 的機制,影響選民對候選人的態度與投票意願,並檢視過程中的干擾變數。 本研究歷時3年,結合2018、2020年真實選舉,以及虛擬選舉情境,共執行11個實驗,第一部分先檢視候選人笑容強度如何影響知覺能力、溫暖的社會判斷,進而影響選民反應;考量在形成社會判斷的過程中,可能會受到候選人其他特質因素、選民心理因素、甚至溝通情境的特性所影響,故第二部分納入選民調節焦點、評估模式、候選人外表吸引力、廣告價性的干擾作用;第三部分則考量若將笑容運用於廣告,其對選民態度、投票意願的效果也可能受到廣告內、外部因素的影響,故結合基模、解釋水平理論,探討笑容與廣告訴求類型、背景顏色、發佈時點、候選人政黨、選情狀況的搭配關係。本研究也結合內容分析法,檢視2016、2018、2020年選舉的選舉公報和競選廣告中笑容運用情況,並分析笑容強度和得票率之間的關聯性,俾提供更多的證據支持笑容的作用。 重要的研究發現包括:(1) 無論使用虛擬或是真實選舉情境,或針對不同選舉層級,在正面溝通情境下,候選人展露燦笑 (相較於微笑或是無微笑),可提升知覺溫暖,並循溫暖的直接中介,或先溫暖而後能力的序列中介,提升候選人態度和票投候選人意願;(2) 在形成社會判斷的過程中,選民調節焦點、候選人外表吸引力會干擾笑容強度的效果,進而造成選民對候選人的態度反應也有所差異;(3) 笑容強度效果需考量和廣告中議題訴求、形象訴求類型的搭配,但廣告背景顏色不會干擾笑容強度的效果;(4) 笑容強度的效果也會受廣告外部元素所影響;(5) 在負面攻擊情境下,廣告中呈現的被攻擊方候選人若展露燦笑 (相較於微笑、無微笑),會使選民覺得該位被攻擊方候選人較為溫暖,且降低選民對於攻擊方候選人的態度與投票意願 (尤其在進行議題攻擊時);(6) 透過選舉公報內容分析的實證研究發現:無論選舉的職位為何,笑容強度皆可提升候選人得票數、得票率和當選率。而競選廣告的內容分析顯示,許多候選人似乎尚未能善加利用笑容,以達較佳溝通效果。 本研究的結果對於政治傳播領域中的視覺線索效應 (尤其聚焦於笑容表情)、競選廣告研究做出重要貢獻,也為候選人形象、基模一致性/不一致性、解釋水平理論等概念和相關研究,提供理論上的意涵,並可供候選人因應個人、選民、情境條件,以及廣告其他元素,選擇最適當笑容表情展現之參考。
Visual cues in political communication, regardless of the candidate’s appearance, facial expressions, gaze, and gestures, play an essential role in affecting voters’ perception, impression formation, evaluation, and voting decisions. Smile is a widely used marketing tool. During elections, many candidates are seen smiling in their campaign advertisements; however, very few studies have investigated the richness and nuances of a smile or analyzed the possible impact of different smiles. Does a bigger smile lead to a more positive effect? This study aimed to examine how slight smiles and broad smiles have an impact on voters’ attitudes toward candidates and their voting intention through the social judgment mechanism (i.e., perceived competence and warmth). Additionally, possible moderators of the effects of smile intensity were also explored. This study conducted 11 experiments that either used the actual elections in 2018 and 2020 or created fictional elections as experimental scenarios, and was completed within three years. The important findings are as follows: (1) Regardless of fictional or actual election contexts and the election positions being contested, candidates who displayed a broad smile (vs. slight smile and no smile) improved voters’ perception of warmth. Smile intensity positively affected candidate attitudes and voting intentions through the direct mediation of perceived warmth, as well as the sequential mediation of perceived warmth first and then perceived competence. (2) In the process of forming a social judgment, voters’ regulatory focus and candidates’ physical attractiveness moderated the effect of smile intensity, thus causing differences in voters’ attitudinal responses toward candidates. (3) The effect of smile intensity depended on the type of issue appeal and image appeal used in the advertisements. Advertising background colors did not moderate the effect of the smile intensity. (4) The effect of smile intensity was also affected by external advertising factors, including advertising timing, candidate party affiliation, and election conditions. (5) In the negative attack scenario, when the attacked candidate displayed a broad smile (vs. slight smile and no smile) in the advertisement, voters perceived the attacked candidate warmer, and voters’ attitudes and voting intentions toward the sponsoring candidate worsened (especially for the issue attack advertisement). (6) The empirical study using content analyses revealed that regardless of the position contested, the candidates’ smile intensity displayed in official election bulletins increased the candidates’ votes and vote shares and the possibility of winning the election. However, the content analyses of newspaper campaign advertisements indicated that many candidates did not seem to be able to make the best of smiles to communicate well. This study contributes to the research on visual cue effects – especially in relation to smile expression – in political communication, and provides theoretical implications for campaign advertising, candidate image, the controversy of schema congruence versus incongruence, and construal level theory. The findings also provide suggestions for candidates on displaying smiles to win the support of voters and to strategically adjust the intensity of the smile based on the candidate, voter, context conditions, and other advertising-related factors.
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