科技部專題研究計畫主持人
MOST 108-2410-H-018-012-SSS
領導者謙卑與員工積極主動的工作行為:檢驗自我提升與自我 保護的工作動機
Leader Humility and Employee Proactive Work Behaviors: Examining Work Motivations of Self-Enhancement and Self-Protection
科技部
Ministry of Science and Technology
國立彰化師範大學人力資源管理研究所
Graduate Institute of Human Resource Management, National Changhua University of Education
鍾安宜
Anyi Chung
國立彰化師範大學人力資源管理研究所
Graduate Institute of Human Resource Management, National Changhua University of Education
鍾安宜
助理教授
04 7212105 ext. 7910
anyichung@gmail.com
計畫執行期間起:2019-08-01
計畫執行期間迄:2021-07-31
2019-11-01
2021-03-31
醫院護理師
1
004
01,05
官僚;順從性格;領導者謙卑;組織基礎的自尊;積極主動的工作 行為;
bureaucracy;conformist personality;leader humility;organization-based self-esteem;proactive work behaviors
本研究採用Korman (2001)自我提升動機(self-enhancement motivation)的概念發展出一個中介模式,亦即領導者謙卑(leader humility)正向影響員工組織基礎的自尊(organization-based self-esteem),後者再進一步影響積極主動的工作行為(proactive work behaviors)。再者,官僚(bureaucracy)與順從性格 (conformist personality)在醫療產業是相當常見的,此兩變數可 能具有調節效果因而強化或者削弱謙卑領導的效能。換言之,謙卑 領導在官僚體制是非循常的(counter-normative),因此更具風險 (riskier),也因為領導者的冒險精神與勇氣可能更能提升下屬的組 織基礎的自尊。然而,組織基礎的自尊與積極主動的工作行為之間 的關聯性可能在高度順從的員工身上更顯薄弱。 本研究的對象是一家秉持著謙卑與服務品質為經營理念的台灣 基督教醫院。為降低資料可能因為同時點與同來源而產生偏誤,資 料來源包括全職的工作人員與其直線主管,共回收有效紙本配對問 卷524組,含括52個工作團隊。員工在第一波問卷中回答對直線主管 的謙卑領導之知覺與團隊官僚氣候;第二波問卷則是組織基礎自尊 以及與個人順從性格;主管問卷在第三個時點收集,有關直接下屬 的積極主動的工作行為。各波問卷的間隔時間為一個月。謙卑領導 與團隊官僚氣候是屬團體層次的概念,因此以各團隊成員的加總平 均分數呈現。資料分析採用Mplus 8.5統計軟體的驗證性因素分析 (Confirmatory Factor Analysis, CFA)以檢驗測量模式,並且使用階層線性模式(Hierarchical Linear Modeling, HLM)以檢驗研究假設。研究發現,領導者謙卑與員工的積極主動的工作行為之間的關 係受到組織基礎自尊的完全中介。組織基礎自尊的中介效果受到官 僚氣候的強化。再者,員工的順從性格對組織基礎自尊與積極主動 的工作行為之間的關係不具調節效果。本研究的貢獻,即為正處於 發展初期的謙卑領導研究進一步辨識出重要的結果變數、中介變數 以及調節變數。最後,本研究為組織提出的管理意涵,包括主管的 甄選與訓練以謙卑領導為重點。
The present research adopts Korman’s (2001) conceptualization of self-enhancement motivation to illustrate a hypothesized mediation model. Specifically, leader humility is positively related to employee organization-based self-esteem (OBSE), which in turn leads to proactive work behaviors (PWBs). Moreover, bureaucracy and conformist personality prevalent in the medicine industry may act as moderators to enhance or neutralize the effectiveness of humble leadership. That is, leader humility is more counter-normative and riskier in bureaucratic settings and thus will have a larger payoff in terms of follower OBSE. However, the association between OBSE and PWBs will be weaker for employees who are high in conformist personality. This research collected data from a Christian hospital in Taiwan due to its strong organizational focus on humility and service quality. To mitigate concerns associated with having same-time, same-source data, a dyadic sample and a three-phase design were used. The research hypotheses were tested by using data gathered from 524 employees under 52 supervisors (with members ranging from 3 to 12). The employees provided data on perceptions of leader humility and bureaucracy at Time 1 and their own organization-based self-esteem and conformist personality at Time 2 whereas their supervisors rated their proactive work behaviors at Time 3. Since the constructs of leader humility and bureaucracy were captured via consensus of group members’ perceptions, these scores were averaged within each unit. Mplus 8.5 was used to analyze the measurement model, and Hierarchical Linear Modeling was employed to test the hypotheses. The results show that the relationship between leader humility and employee proactive work behaviors was fully mediated by organization-based self-esteem. The indirect effect of OBSE was enhanced by bureaucracy. Moreover, the moderating effect of employee conformist personality was not found on the relationship between OBSE and proactive work behavior. The present research has contributed to literature on humble leadership by identifying its important outcomes, mechanisms and contingencies in health organizations. Finally, it provided managerial implications for service organizations in terms of selecting and training their supervisors on the basis of humble leadership.
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