MOST 105-2410-H-001 -037-SS2
Marital “Yi”: The Characteristics and Influence of “Qing Yi” in Contemporary Marriage
Ministry of Science and Technology
Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica
Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica
Yi, Qing, Justice, Intimacy, Married Couples
本計畫採取「義」的理念體系來統攝華人夫妻態度行為與相處方式。透過文獻回顧整理「義」與「情義」相關概念，以知、情、意、行等層面探討當代婚姻關係中的義及情義之內涵特色，釐清不同人倫領域的「義」的展現與折衝，並分析比較世代特質、個人背景及人際處境的作用，討論其對夫妻關係可能產生的影響。 本計畫為兩年期計畫，第一年採取質性研究典範，進行五次已婚者焦點團體深度訪談（共23人）及13位曾婚或已婚者一對一深度訪談，收集受訪者對於「義」、「情義」的看法，與婚姻生活牽涉領域中有關情義的展現，不同人際領域的「義」與「情義」之特色及人際領域衝突時的反應傾向，探索夫妻間義及情義的概念內涵，透過角色衝突凸顯義的意義，區辨因時制宜的衡量基準等，並藉之編訂作為綱領的「義」及「夫妻情義」等不同人倫領域的義之相關問卷量表。 第二年採取量性研究典範，蒐集344對夫妻配對資料，測量夫妻對各種角色的責任義務評估（含角色義務的「應然」評估、對自己行為的「實然」評估、對配偶行為的「知覺」評估）、不同角色間有所衝突時的判斷選擇因應方式、婚姻正義量表、親密情感、婚姻品質，以及人口基本資料變項。主要結果顯示，各種角色的應然層面中，丈夫或父親的角色偏重在養家經濟保障方面、妻子或母親的角色主要為關心陪伴照顧，仍不脫離傳統性別角色的範疇；而各種角色的應然度與實然度之差異，除了做為女兒在遵循傳統及做為媳婦在融入夫家這兩方面的實然度高於應然度，其他則幾乎全為應然度高於實然度，意味夫妻認為自己實際所做的角色責任，大多未達自己設定的應然標準。親密情感愈高、互動正義或分配正義愈高的夫妻，有愈良好的婚姻品質；夫妻角色責任實際做到的程度愈高或婿媳角色責任實際做到的程度愈高，婚姻品質愈佳；但父母角色責任實際做到的程度愈高婚姻品質反而愈差；這些結果凸顯當代台灣夫妻情義的獨特作用與機制。
This project adopted qualitative and quantitative methodologies to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Taiwanese married couples in relation to the Chinese ideology of “Yi”. In terms of cognition, affection, intention and action, this project investigated the meanings and characteristics of “Yi” and “Qing Yi” in contemporary marriage. Through this investigation, it aimed to clarify the features and negotiations of “Yi” among different ethical relationships, compare the different conceptions about Yi among people of different generations backgrounds and interpersonal situations, and discuss the implications of Yi for marital quality. This project was completed in two years. In the first year, a qualitative methodology was used to conduct focused group discussions with twenty-three married people (five focused groups, each group including four or five same-sex married people) and in-depth and face-to-face interviews with thirteen married or divorced people. Through gathering their viewpoints of “Yi” and “Qing Yi”, the display of “Qing Yi” in their marriages, the characteristics of “Yi” in their ethical relationships, and their reactions to conflicts arising among different ethical relationships, the concepts and contents of “Yi” and “Qing Yi” were explored. In addition, judgement standards in accordance with different situations were also be distinguished. Based on the result of the first-year research, scales for “Yi”, “Qing Yi” and “Yi” in other ethical relationships were compiled. The second year, 344 Taiwanese married couples filled out a questionnaire which included scales of “should”, “actual” and “perception” assessment of responsibility for various roles, response coping strategies when there are conflicts between different roles, the marital justice scale, the marital intimacy, the marital quality, and the demographic data variables. The main results showed that, the role of husband or father is more important in financial and protective aspects, the role of the wife or mother is mainly concerned with accompanying care, that meant traditional gender roles still being valued by husbands and wive. The difference between “should” and “actual” showed that the degree of “should” is higher than “actual”, except as a daughter or as a wife. It means that the couples think that their actual role responsibilities are mostly not up to their own standards. The higher the intimacy, the better the marital quality. The more interactive or distributive justice, the better the marital quality. The higher the degree of responsibility of the husband and wife is actually achieved, or the higher the degree of responsibility of the role is, the better the quality of marriage; but the higher the degree of responsibility of the parental role is actually achieved, the worse the quality of marriage is. These results highlighted the unique role and mechanism of “Qing” “Yi” in Contemporary Taiwan couples.