科技部專題研究計畫主持人
MOST 108-2410-H-015-002-SSS
長照機構火災安全因子風險分析以台灣護理之家火災現場搶救作業指標之研究為例
Fire Safety Risk Evaluation of Long-term Care Facilities : A Case Study of the Fire Scene Rescue Operation Indices of Nursing Home
科技部
Ministry of Science and Technology
中央警察大學
Central Police University
林宜君
Yi-Chun Lin
中央警察大學
Central Police University
黃崇豪
0933331300
alex97@mail.cpu.edu.tw
計畫執行期間起:2019-08-01
計畫執行期間迄:2020-10-31
2019-08-01
2020-10-31
護理之家相關人員
1
001
01
護理之家
Operation Indices of Nursing Home
台灣近年來隨著經濟水平發展、公共衛生改善與醫療技術進步,影響人口平均壽命的提高,同時伴隨出生率的下降,使得台灣社會人口老化現象急劇加速,高齡化是當前所需面對的社會課題。國內各式長照機構的成立及規模與日俱增,而機構中收容之對象多屬生理移動能力障礙及自主避難困難之高齡者,不幸發生火災時,內部人員避難疏散及外部單位緊急救援的更增加其困難性。近年來長照機構火災案件頻傳,災例一再顯示即便空間設備符合用途法規,仍舊造成嚴重傷亡之結果。長期以來,國內外對於長期照顧機構相關研究較偏重於防火避難設施、防火管理效能及場所初期自衛消防編組應變作為,而缺乏長期照顧機構火災搶救面向之探討。為了探討影響長期照顧機構火災現場自助力與公助力之指標,本研究藉由文獻回顧瞭解長照機構特性並以護理之家為例,深入分析現況、制度及消防機關現場搶救作為等相關內容,並透過專家訪談建立影響長照機構火災搶救之因子層次結構模型,配合層級分析法及專家問卷衡量指標的相對重要性及檢定各因子間重要性之差異程度,以找尋護理之家的現場作業指標,並進一步分析和討論其重要性排序和代表意義,提供長照機構作為評估自身火災脆弱度時之參考,俾利其在有限經費下之優先改善方案。再參酌問卷分析之結果,選取模擬對象, 設計避難疏散情境,並運用人員避難模擬軟體PATHFINDER,探討當火災發生時,自助與公助對於收容人員逃生之關係,提供消防機關作為搶救作為之參考。平時實施自衛消防編組演練及驗證時,皆以規格式驗證法(Route A)當作標準,在此標準下驗證之界限時間通常在合格範圍中,但當發生傷亡案例時,在第一線執行自衛消防編組任務之緊急應變人員卻又往往成為檢討的對象之一,本研究運用FDS及PyroSim模擬軟體,模擬場所發生火災,緊急應變人員所面對的環境條件,以性能式驗證法(Route C)與規格式驗證法(Route A)相比較,並參照災例分析找出現行驗證制度與實際執行間的不足。 本研究結果發現影響消防機關在護理之家火災現場作業之因子以人員受困情形最為重要。而權重值較高排名為二至五名指標其次依序為消防人力、指揮官訓練、火勢狀況及指揮官經驗等,因此當消防機關於類似場所火災現場執行搶救時,必須以「人員受困情形」為首要考量因素,並據以訂定搶救計畫及策略,以達到保命護產之目標,其次依其重要性排序的代表意義,提供長照機構作為評估自身火災脆弱度時之參考,俾利其在有限經費下能優先執行改善方案。另以高雄護理之家模擬結果,進而探討起火區劃差異的影響與避難路徑的使用,可以建立相對安全區劃使住民得以避難且得到適當照護,且消防人員利用不同的樓梯進行住民避難及佈線搶救,使疏散不會發生相互重疊且擁擠狀況進行避難疏散相關模擬結果可進而推動場所模擬演練達到最佳的避難疏散效率,面對不同火災情境,建立有效的避難疏散,以提供救災人員快速佈署。本研究以實際場所災例結果分析及模擬軟體PyroSim建立場所模型後模擬護理之家床墊起火情境,找出緊急應變人員生存安全的臨界時間並發現性能式驗證法(Route C)符合規格式驗證法(Route A)的標準--「自衛消防編組應變能力驗證要點」驗證界限時間,建議未來應將緊急應變人員實際準備時間納入考量,修正現行法規「自衛消防編組應變能力驗證要點」」驗證界限時間,使驗證演練與實際執行自衛消防編組任務時更趨一致,以期是類場所發生火災時達成零傷亡的目標,使護理之家安全效能質提升以維持住民生命安全。
In recent years, with the development of economic level, improvement of public health and advancement of medical technology, the average life expectancy of the population is increasing and accompanied by a decline in the birth rate, which has accelerated the aging of Taiwan\'s social population. Due to the trend of the times, the establishment and scale of various long-term care institutions in Taiwan are increasing day by day. The residents in the institutions are mostly elderly people with physiological mobility obstacles and difficulties in the autonomous evacuation. Therefore, when a fire accident occurs, the difficulties of internal evacuation and emergency rescue are multiplied. In recent years, fire accidents in long-term care institutions have frequently occurred, and disaster cases have repeatedly shown that even if space equipment meets the use regulations, it still causes serious casualties. For a long time, the research on long-term care institutions at home and abroad has focused on the initial response of fire accidents and fire prevention facilities, lacking long-term care institutions for fire rescue. In order to explore the indicators that affect the self-help and public assistance of long-term care institutions, this study uses literature review to understand the characteristics of the long-term care institution, the current system and the on-site rescue of firefighting agencies, and to establish a factor hierarchy model of affecting fire rescue in long-term care institutions through expert interviews. The factor hierarchy model of rescue factor, combined with the relative importance of the level analysis method and the expert questionnaire to measure the difference between the indicators and the importance of each factor, to find the field operation index of the nursing home. Use the analytic hierarchy process method (AHP) to obtain the weight of the assessment items, and analyze and discuss the importance and the meaning of sorting of these items. Provide long-term care facilities as a reference for assessing their own vulnerability to fire, and prioritize improvement programs under limited funding. The authorities take Route A as the standard when bring the self-defense fire organization drill and verification into practice. The boundary time falls within the legal range ordinarily. However, the emergency reaction staffs who are in the front line to carry out the tasks of self-defense fire organization usually will be one of the targets that the authorities blame on them for casualties. This research simulated one of the institutions in KaohSiung City, and try to find out the life safety condition in fire scene for emergency reaction staffs by utilizing the numerical simulation softwares, FDS(Fire Dynamics Simulator)and PyroSim. Discovering the insufficient point between verification system and executive field by referring to the analytic cases and comparing Route A and Route C. Then take the results of the questionnaire analysis and select the simulation objects, design evacuation scenarios, and use the personnel evacuation simulation software PATHFINDER to explore the relationship between self-help and public assistance for the escape of the sheltered personnel when the fire occurs, and provide the fire department as the basis for rescue. In addition, to analyze the rescue space and time of horizontal evacuation line (to the relative safety zone) based on the scale modeling of the actual site. Furthermore, using simulation comparison between nursing home of Kaohsiung, to explore the impact of fire zone differences and make use of evacuation line, also to establish the relative safety zone, which will ensure the safety evacuation and proper care for residents. Firefighters use different stairs for evacuation and waterline layout rescue, to prevent the overlap and crowd situation happened during the evacuation. Moreover, in order to achieve the best efficiency of evacuation in place simulation practice, we should establish effective evacuation based on different fire situations, to facilitate rapid deployment of rescue personnel. It will also improve the safety effectiveness of nursing homes to ensure the safety of residents’ life.
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