科技部專題研究計畫主持人
MOST 107-2410-H-003-040-SSS
正向心理介入對文化弱勢青少年幸福感之輔導效果:「三階五核」小團體輔導方案之實徵研究
Effects of a positive psychology intervention on cultural minority adolescents: An empirical study
科技部
Ministry of Science and Technology
國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系(所)
National Taiwan Normal University Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling
王櫻芬,吳相儀
Ying-Feng Wang,Hsiang-Yi Wu
國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系(所),高雄醫學大學心理學系(所)
National Taiwan Normal University Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling,Kaohsiung Medical University Department of Psychology
林家緯
研究助理
0958609712
waterfair8261@gmail.com
計畫執行期間起:2018-08-01
計畫執行期間迄:2020-01-31
2019-03-01
2019-04-30
本研究採用便利性抽樣的方式,透過個人關係,招募335名正就讀國小四至六年級的學生參與研究,共回收241份有效問卷。樣本平均年齡為11.14歲(Range = 15.42 - 17.75;SD = 0.95),就讀四年級學生68人(28.2%),五年級95人(39.4%),六年級78人(32.4%)。其中男生118人(48.96%),女生123人(51.04%)。目前的居住狀況以與父母同住比率最高(64.7%),其次為三代同堂(19.5%)、與父母其中一人同住(9.5%)、沒有和父母同住而是與祖父母或外祖父
1
004,096
01
正向心理學、文化弱勢、青少年、幸福感、小團體輔導
adolescent, group counseling, cultural minority, positive psychology, wellbeing
本研究的主要目的在評估「三階五核正向心理小團體輔導方案」 ,對於四年級至八年級文化弱勢青少年的輔導效果。由於適合此年齡族群使用的正向心理評估工具不多,研究者選取原以國中生為樣本所發展的「生活滿意度量表修訂版」、「自動化思考量表」和「國中生幸福感量表」作為研究工具,並於研究一中,以國小高年級學童為樣本,且以適用國小學童的「自尊量表」和「兒童樂觀-悲觀雙因子量表」為效標,取得此三份研究量表用於國小學童的信效度資訊。研究二採用「前後測及追蹤測量」之準實驗設計,分別以國小和國中青少年為對象,實施實驗處理;並於第一次團體開始前、第十二次團體結束後以及團體結束後三週,施測研究量表,以評估團體成效。 研究一採用便利性抽樣的方式,以241份名正就讀國小四至六年級的學生為對象,採用內部一致性分析、因素分析和Pearson積差相關,檢定三份研究量表的信效度。結果發現各研究量表的Cronbach’s α皆達.80以上。此外,因素分析結果顯示:除了「國中生幸福感量表」的兩個分量表之可解釋變異量未達50%,幸福感量表和自動化思考量表的兩個分量表之可解釋變異量皆達到標準,且所有量表的題項之因素負荷量皆達.35以上。最後,在效標關聯效度上,研究發現各研究量表和效標變項之相關皆達顯著,初步支持效標關聯效度。綜言之,研究結果顯示三份研究量表具有可接受的信度和效度。 研究二以89名受試者為對象,共組成8對實驗組/控制組。國小組的實驗組受試者22名,控制組20名;國中組的實驗組受試者22名,控制組21名。實驗團體的實施時間每週兩次、每次40~45分鐘,共計12次。控制組則在實驗團體進行期間,提供正向心理學練習活動供其參考;實驗團體結束之後,依學校安排和控制組成員意願,參與小團體輔導。研究者採用單因子共變數分析,並輔以回饋單和質性訪談了解團體成效。結果發現實驗團體有助促進國小實驗組受試者的人際關係滿意度,但是在其他研究變項上則無顯著成效。對於國中組的受試者亦無顯著立即性輔導成效。在持續性輔導效果上,研究發現在團體結束三週時,國中實驗組受試者的幸福感得分顯著低於控制組的得分,兩組在其他研究變項之得分則無顯著差異。以國小學童為對象的分析結果,實驗團體對於國小組受試者無顯著持續性輔導效果。 綜言之,量化分析結果顯示「三階五核」正向心理小團體輔導,對於國小組受試者的人際關係滿意度,具立即輔導效果。但是對於國中實驗組受試者之幸福感可能有負向影響。另一方面,團體回饋單和質性訪談分析結果,皆顯示實驗組受試者對於團體的喜愛和肯定 ,也認為團體有助孕育更積極的自我關照、建立正向的世界觀和維持和增進人際親密等效應。如何促進實驗團體在量化的測量變項上的成效,值得繼續研究探討。此外,量化分析結果發現負向效應的原因,值得後續探討。根據此研究結果,研究提出未來實務和研究的建議。
The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the effectiveness of a counseling group designed based on the positive psychology on wellbeing of adolescents who are from a cultural minority group. Satisfaction with life scale-revised, Automatic thoughts questionnaire, and wellbeing scale for adolescents were used as studying scales. The researcher first obtained psychometric properties of the three scales among fourth to sixth graders because these scales were original developed for junior high school students . The self-esteem scale and the optimism-pessimism scale were adopted as validity scales. Then, the researcher adopted a pre-post-follow up test quasi-experimental design to evaluate effectiveness of the experimental counseling group. In Study 1, 241 adolescents in 4th , 5th , or 6th grade were recruited. Analysis of Cronbach’s α, exploratory factor analysis, and Pearson product moment analysis were adopted to obtain reliability and validity information of the three studying scales. The results indicated that Cronbach’s α coefficients of three scales were above .80, factor loadings of each items are above .35, and explained variables of most scales met the criteria. Finally, three scales were significantly correlated to their own validity scales. To short, three studying scales possess acceptable reliability and validity qualities. In study 2, 89 adolescents who were between 5th and 8th grade and fit the criteria of being a cultural minority were recruited. For the 5th and 6th graders, there were 22 of them in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. For the 7th and 8th graders, there were 22 of them in the experimental group and 21 in the control group. Three studying scales, session evaluation form, group evaluation form, and group member interview were used to evaluate the group effectiveness. A one-way ANCOVA was performed to test research hypothesis along with qualitative analysis of the interview data. Results indicated that the experimental group was effective in increasing levels of satisfaction of interpersonal relationship among 5th and 6th graders on the post-test while it showed no significant effects on other studying variables. In terms of results of the follow-up test, findings indicated that the sense of well-being was significant decreased for the experimental group among 7th and 8th graders while there were no significant differences between experimental groups and control groups on other studying variables both for 5th and 6th graders and for 7th and 8th graders. Although the analysis of quantitative data showed undesired results, the analysis of session evaluation form, group evaluation form, and group member interview indicated that adolescents in experimental group enjoyed and were satisfied with counseling group. They also reported that the group has helped them in identifying their own strengths, establishing positive attitude toward the world, and enhancing qualities of friendship and relationship with their families. Identifying ways of improving group effectiveness on qualitative measures will be crucial for researchers. At the same time, possible reasons contributing to the negative effect of group for 7th and 8th graders are worthy for further investigation. Based on findings, recommendations for practice and future study was proposed.
否,無直接識別資料
除檢查有無可識別個人身份資料外,另檢查個案編號是否重複、變項及選項數值說明是否與問卷一致或未被定義,發現前述狀況時,將於確認後協助修改。
追蹤清單
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