科技部專題研究計畫主持人
108-2410-H-037 -005 -SSS
當代社會「尊師」之意義、結構及其功能:尊師之雙重向度對師生互動與學習結果之影響暨介入成效
\"Respecting-Teachers\" in Contemporary Society: Testing the \"Two-Dimension Model of Respecting-Teachers\" and Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Intervention Program
科技部
Ministry of Science and Technology
高雄醫學大學心理學系
Department of Psychology, Kaohsiung Medical University
簡晉龍
Chin-Lung Chien
高雄醫學大學心理學系
Department of Psychology, Kaohsiung Medical University
簡晉龍
副教授
07-3215422#836
psy2501@gmail.com
計畫執行期間起:2020-08-01
計畫執行期間迄:2020-12-31
2020-03-01
2021-12-31
台灣中學(國高中)與大學生(含研究生)
1
003,004
01
本土心理學;角色義務;師生倫理;師生關係;尊師重道;尊尊原則;權威取向
Authoritarian Orientation;Indigenous Psychology;Respecting the Teachers and Valuing Their Teachings;Respecting the Superior (Zun-Zun) Principle;Role Obligation;Teacher-Student Ethics;TeacTeacher-Student Relationship
傳統儒家社會對「尊師」賦予極高價值,尊師不但是重要的倫理,也是學生應遵守的義務。然而,當代社會中,尊師價值面臨不少批評,被認為是一種威權象徵,不值得倡導。到底尊師是好是壞?要延續或廢除?當代學者與民眾對尊師有正反兩極反應,顯示此議題值得進一步探討。先前,研究者建構一套尊師概念架構,指出尊師包括「敬師」與「畏師」雙重內涵,敬師對師生互動與學生學習發揮正面功能,而畏師較易產生負面作用。本年度研究係延續前期研究成果,對尊師的雙元因素結構進行再驗,並探討尊師雙因素與其他相關構念(含權力距離、權威主義、遵從權威、平權開放、角色義務)的區別與關聯,更收集第二波的效標變項,以探究尊師雙因素對心理適應、師生互動與關係、學習結果等關鍵變項的預測效度。 研究結果發現:本研究再次支持尊師量表的雙因素結構—敬師與畏師,也顯示雙因素與既有的權威相關變項(權力距離、權威主義、遵從權威)彼此可區辨,且與學生角色義務有顯著相關(特別是敬師)。此外,不論敬師或畏師,都與現代性的平權開放沒有明顯衝突,顯示尊師可與現代性價值共存。尊師雙因素的預測效度顯示:敬師對主觀幸福感有些許正面效果,也與認知彈性有正向的關聯,畏師才對幸福感與認知彈性有負向效果;敬師多與正向或中性的互動行為(如:恭敬謹慎)有關,而畏師多與負向或非適應性的行為(如:行為失常)有關;敬師對師生關係有正面效果,而畏師則可能不利師生關係;最後,敬師對學習投入和學習滿意都有正面效果,但畏師沒有任何顯著的關係。不同於以往,本研究特別加入心理適應的變項,發現尊師對幸福感與認知彈性都有些效果。值得留意的,敬師不但不妨礙認知彈性,更與平權開放的價值沒有衝突。 整體來說,敬師主要發揮具有適應性的正面作用,而畏師大多產生負面效果。因此,本研究不但解決不同觀點對尊師之爭議,也能提供社會洞見與回應。隨著社會變遷,也有學者提出以「尊重」取代「尊敬」之主張,而尊重似乎成為「新」的尊師倫理。未來將進一步考量時代脈絡,探討新舊尊師之內涵,及其對師生互動與學生學習之影響,找到適合這個世代或下個世代之師生互動原則(倫理)。
Traditional Confucianism highly values zunjing (尊敬) for teachers, which is considered a crucial ethical principle by which students should abide. In modern society, zunjing for teachers is strongly criticized and deemed an authoritarian symbol that should not be advocated. Whether having zunjing for teachers is positive or negative and whether this ethical principle should continue to be honored or abolished require further investigation considering that opinions, both scholarly and popular, on zunjing for teachers have been bipolar. In our previous study, a conceptual framework on the dual connotations of zunjing for teachers was developed. For this year’s study, we extended the results of our previous study to examine the dual connotations of zunjing for teachers, and to distinguish the differences between other related constructs (e.g., power distance, authoritarianism, obedience to authority, openness to gender equity, and role obligation) and their correlations. A different set of criterion variables was collected to determine the predictive validity of the dual connotations of zunjing for teachers to predict key variables such as the psychological adaptation, teacher–student interaction and relationship, and learning outcomes. Research results again supported the two-factor structure of the zunjing-for-teacher scale—reverence for teachers (RFT) and fear for teachers (FFT). Furthermore, the two factors were distinguishable from other authority-related variables (i.e., power distance, authoritarianism, and obedience to authority) and significantly correlated with students’ role obligation, with a particularly strong correlation found between the RFT and said variables. Both factors showed no apparent conflict with “egalitarianism and open-mindedness” in modern society, indicating that zunjing for teachers can coexist with modern values. Regarding predictive validity of the two factors, RFT mildly but positively affected subjective well-being and positively correlated with cognitive flexibility. FFT negatively affected subjective well-being and cognitive flexibility. RFT mostly correlated with positive or neutral interaction (e.g., being respectful and cautious), whereas FFT mostly correlated with negative or nonadaptive behavior (e.g., abnormal behavior). RFT and FFT positively and negatively affected teacher–student relationship, respectively. Finally, learning engagement and learning satisfaction were positively correlated with RFT. Notably, RFT did not hinder cognitive flexibility nor conflict with the value of egalitarianism. Overall, RFT positively affected psychological adaptation, whereas FFT mostly produced negative effects. This study resolved the disputes between different opinions on zunjing for teachers as well as provided social insights. Following changes in the society, some scholars opted to replace “zunjing” with “respect” (尊重), and respect for teachers seems to have become the new ethical principle. In the future, we will consider the context of times, explore the traditional and new ethical principles, and their influence on teacher–student interaction and students’ learning performance. The objective is to identify an ethical principle for teacher–student interaction that is suitable for the present generation or the subsequent ones.
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