科技部專題研究計畫主持人
MOST-107-2410-H-002-092-SS2
國際收養與兒童權益:從原生家庭、收出養機構及大眾觀點探討國際收養議題
Intercountry Adoption and Children’s Rights: Perspectives of Original Families, Professionals, and the General Public
科技部
Ministry of Science and Technology
國立臺灣大學社會工作學系
National Taiwan University Department of Social Work
林敬軒
Ching-Hsuan Lin
國立臺灣大學社會工作學系
National Taiwan University Department of Social Work
林敬軒
助理教授
(02) 3366-3728
hsuanlin@ntu.edu.tw
計畫執行期間起:2018-07-01
計畫執行期間迄:2020-06-30
2019-07-01
2020-06-30
臺灣社會大眾
1
007
01
跨國境收出養;兒童最佳利益;兒童權利與福利;原生家庭;連結;收養後服務
Intercountry adoption;The best interests of the child;Child rights and welfare;Birth family;Connection;Postadoption services
國境收出養考量兒童最佳利益,為無法在原生家庭或國家得到妥 善照顧的兒童找到一個永久的家。然而,跨國收養兒童的權益和福 祉在國際間仍常有爭議。一方面,過去研究發現,跨國收養兒童經 常會面對生活適應和文化認同的困難;另一方面,兒童最佳利益的 考量往往沒有延續到被收養至其他國家後的福祉和認同發展。另外 ,鮮少有相關研究探討被收養兒童與原生國家和文化連結的概念 ,包括與原生家庭的聯繫和重聚經驗。又原生家庭在收出養的三角 關係(即出養人、被收養人、收養人)中經常被邊緣化、弱勢化、 無聲化,相關討論有限。再者,國內社會文化影響社會大眾對於收 出養議題的認知,更進一步影響社會價值看待出養和收養家庭的態 度。因此,立基於上述跨國收出養的議題,本研究為一跨國合作研 究計畫的部分(與台灣出養國排名第三高的澳洲合作,),主要聚 焦:(1) 探討被收養兒童與原生家庭的「連結」的意願、形式和影 響;(2) 討論收出養議題中的「兒童最佳利益」的權衡;(3) 充權 原生母親的「發聲」;以及 (4) 台灣社會大眾對於收出養議題的認 知與態度。本研究包含質性和量化研究設計。第一階段立意取樣 18位收出養專業人員和12位原生母親,透過深度訪談和焦點團體 ,詢問出養的決策和過程、與孩子聯繫的經驗、針對收出養服務的 建議、以及對於兒童最佳利益的詮釋。第二階段分層比例抽樣 1,500位社會大眾完成網路問卷調查,回答對於國內收出養知識、收 出養家庭態度等問題。研究發現: (1) 相較於收養家庭和孩子對於 連結是期待的,本研究受訪的原生母親對於和孩子連結的想法是矛 盾的,既想知道孩子是否過得好,又擔心會打擾收養家庭和孩子發 展。(2) 收出養社工指出,「兒童最佳利益」的權衡包括出養家庭 的追蹤服務、收養家庭的聯繫要求、孩子跨國收養的適切性。(3) 部分受訪的原生母親,提到已從出養 孩子的失去和罪惡感中「走出來」,其中支持系統增強、與孩子的 聯繫確認孩子過得好、有新的親密關係或重新擔任母親角色都協助 出養人發展復原力。(4) 社會大眾問卷調查對於收出養態度多為開 放,但對於收出養相關基礎認知是缺乏的,對於收出養家庭的態度 仍具少數傳統價值。相關政策與服務建議強調收出養後追蹤服務的 制度化,以及加強社會教育對於公開收養和兒童權利的倡導。
Intercountry adoptions have been justified as being in the best interests of the child, when the children cannot receive suitable care in their family or country of origin. However, the right and well-being of these children have been concerned. Internationally adopted children are often found to experience challenges regarding attachment, adjustment, and cultural identity. This consideration of children’s best interests does not extend to their lives in adoptive families. Additionally, limited research is documented on the issue of physical, emotional, and cultural connections between adoptees and birth families/countries. Even fewer studies have focused on birth families, who are usually vulnerable, marginalized, and without a voice in among the adoption triad (i.e., birth family, adoptee, adoptive family). Also, the general public in Taiwan has limited understanding of adoption issues, and is often impacted by the societal value. Therefore, this study, as part of an international collaborative project with the University of Sydney in Australia, is designed to (1) explore issues of connection and openness in intercountry; (2) discuss the definition and conceptualization of “the best interests of the child”; (3) give birth mothers a voice and discover their resilience; and (4) examine the general public perceptions of adoption in Taiwan. Year 1 data collection involves indepth interviews and focus groups with 18 adoption professionals and 12 birth mothers. Year 2 data collection includes 1,500 survey respondents. Findings suggest that (1) compared to adoptive families and adoptees who expect to connect, birth mothers are ambivalent about connections. They would like to know whether the child is doing well, but worry to disrupt the adoptive family. (2) Adoption professionals consider “the best interests of the child” as finding a home for children. To do so, they have to balance birth family’s post-adoption services, adoptive family’s requests for connection, and the appropriateness of prioritizing domestic adoption. (3) Some birth mothers have developed resilience over time. They have strengthened support systems, confirmed their child’s status through connections, had a new relationship, and become a mother again. (4) The general public is open and liberal towards adoption, but with little knowledge about adoption. They do remain some traditional values towards sensitive issues. Policy and service implications suggest that post-adoption services should be regulated into policy, and social education should focus on the idea of open adoption and children’s rights.
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