科技部專題研究計畫主持人
MOST 105-2410-H-003 -041 -SS3
臺灣學生道德情意發展之質性與量化探究
A qualitative and quantitative inquiry on morally affective development of Taiwanese students
科技部
Ministry of Science and Technology
國立台灣師範大學
National Taiwan Normal University
李琪明,
Chi-Ming Lee,
公民教育與活動領導學系,
Department of Civic Education and Leadership,
李琪明
教授
02-77491862
t11023@ntnu.edu.tw
計畫執行期間起:2016-08-01
計畫執行期間迄:2020-01-31
2017-08-01
2019-07-31
臺灣國中至大專院校
1
004
01,04
臺灣學生;道德情意;焦點團體;驗證性因素分析;個別訪談
Taiwanese student;affective domain of morality;focus group;individual interview;Confirmatory factor analysis
本專案希冀針對我國學生自國中、高中、大學至研究所數個教育階段,在國內外理論與文獻探討奠基下,聚焦進行道德情意發展(包含道德情感、道德同理、道德認同、道德參與/關懷四者)的實徵研究,期能在社會環境需求與教育改革之際,發揮其品德教育功能。具體研究目的有四:一是建構道德情意發展的內涵要項與評量規準,作為本專案實徵研究之理念基礎與架構;二是針對我國各級教育階段之學生,進行道德情意發展的質性探究,並藉以了解其生活經驗與社會脈絡對於道德情意發展的影響;三是奠基道德情意發展的量化調查,針對我國各級教育階段學生,進行兼具在地化與國際化的量化工具編製並施測,藉以了解其發展概況以及四個能力/素養彼此間,及其與相關變項的關聯性;四是藉由質性與量化實徵探究瞭解我國學生道德情意發展的概況,期能作為增進道德情意教育成效與品質的依據,進而提供國內外學術研究與教育實踐參考與建議。本專案共計三年(2016/8/1~2019/7/31),其研究方法與結果如次。第一年著重在理念建構,藉由文獻探討與國內外專家諮詢確立道德情意發展的重要內涵與評量規準,共召開三次計七場次專家諮詢座談(計30位專家學者),除針對本案主軸方向提供建議,並擬定第二年質性探究具體規劃,包括質性訪談大綱與對象,以及四個議題故事及其訪談模組題目。第二年進行18場次國中至研究所四個教育階段的焦點團體座談,並且進行8個場次的個別訪談。該質性探究研究結果顯示:(一)參與者之情感觸動有其共通性且會與道德聯結,但因親疏關係及對議題認知而有所差異。(二)參與者易展現一般同理的換位思考,但道德同理及其對脈絡的多元理解深度較不易彰顯。(三)參與者在自我認同中面對價值優劣比較時易產生混淆,對於群體的道德認同則因其經驗和轉化能力而有差異。(四)參與者針對社會議題可提出多元策略,但較乏關懷關係的建立,並且其道德承諾與實踐動力會因親疏、年齡、性別與情境有所影響。另本案針對個別訪談研究結果,描繪參與者的道德情意展現及其整體關係圖像。第三年則是量化實徵探究,主要重點為建構道德情意量表。研究者區分四個階段進行統計分析,並採用IBM SPSS Statistics 23與Amos 25 Graphics為分析軟體:一是將預試樣本(N=585)進行項目分析,計算其內部一致性信度;二是將預試樣本區分為二群,以樣本_1(N=283)進行探索性因素分析;三是以樣本_2(N=302)進行驗證性因素分析;四是以正式施測樣本(N=708)進行複核效化檢驗。本研究發展完成的MAM量表包括詳版與簡版,詳版通過內容效度與內部一致性考驗,包括四則道德故事與四個構面,計有44個題項;簡版則是奠基詳版,並具有良好的模式適配度(二階單因子驗證性分析模式),以及理想的組合信度、建構效度與複核效化檢驗,其內容包括三則道德故事與三個構面,計有12個題項。詳版可顯示道德情意量表的脈絡性與豐富性,簡版則可展現結構性與精簡性。藉此量表的發展,本文綜整結論以彰顯MAM量表的特點:一是本量表凸顯情意層面道德範疇,豐富且具深度的多面向意涵;二是本量表與文獻所探討的量表,有其相似度均凸顯道德情意內涵,亦有其故事所關注道德議題的獨創性與在地關聯;三是本研究嘗試以多種類的信效度,對於道德情意量表進行堅實的考驗。
This project is an inquiry on Taiwanese students’ morally affective development, including four competencies/literacies: moral emotion, moral empathy, moral identity and moral engagement/caring. This empirical research under the foundation of theory and literature review involves various educational levels of students from high school to the graduate school. The main methods and findings of this three-year project (2016/8/1~2019/7/31) are as follows. The first year, the researcher and her research assistants have held 7 symposia including 30 scholars and teachers to discuss the rationale and strategies. The second year, they have held 18 focus groups from junior high school to graduate students as well as interviewed 8 undergraduate/ graduate students in order to collect qualitative data. The qualitative research results show that: (1) Common traits were shown in the participants\' moral emotions; however, there was a display of differences as recorded by close knit and unknown people. (2) Participants exhibit empathy, but tend to lack moral empathy and a depth in the contextualization of social issues. (3) Due to a lack of personal experiences in the field and narrating the stories of the role models, participants usually felt confused on multiple comparisons of values and never establish a firm moral identity. (4) Participants readily suggested multiple strategies for social issues, but they usually neglect the importance of caring relationship. Due to concrete barriers of moral disengagement and uncontrollable factors, these suggestions can never be fully realized. Furthermore, according to the results of individual interviews, this project outlines the participants\' affective morality and their overall relationship. The third year, the researcher and her RAs have conducted the pretest and formal surveys to construct a questionnaire. There were four stages in statistical analysis utilizing the IBM SPSS Statistics 23 and Amos 25 Graphics: Stage 1 was an item analysis and computing internal reliability for pretest group sample (N=585). Stage 2 was an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for pretest_1 group (N=283); Stage 3 was a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for pretest_2 group (N=302); and Stage 4 was an assessment of cross-validation for formal survey_ group (N=708). The researcher developed two versions of MAM scale. The long version, which contains four moral stories, four constructs as well as 44 items, has passed the examination for content validity and internal consistency. The short version, which contains three moral stories, three constructs as well as 12 items, possesses the standard of goodness-model-fit model (a one-factor second-order CFA model) and good composite/component/construct reliability, construct validity and cross-validation assessment. The long version MAM scale reveals its contextualization and richness, while the short one shows its structure and refinement. Finally, this study provides several conclusions to integrate the MAM scale’s characteristics as follows: (1) The MAM scale revealed its richness and in-depth on the multi-dimensions of affective morality. (2)The MAM scale demonstrated the concepts of affective morality, which is similar to other related scales, and the localization and creativity on the moral issues. (3) The MAM scale was an attempt to be tested with a variety of reliabilities and validities.
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