科技部專題研究計畫主持人
MOST 106-2410-H-024-012-SSS
以上游互惠、期望、回報速度、同時發生性論述感恩與虧欠—大學學生為樣本 (I)
Using upstream reciprocity, expectation, reciprocity speed, and concurrency to discuss gratitude and indebtedness: University students as a sample (I)
科技部
Ministry of Science and Technology
國立臺南大學
National University of Tainan
丁學勤
Shueh-Chin Ting
國立臺南大學
National University of Tainan
丁學勤
教授
0973180020
tingsc@ms49.hinet.net
計畫執行期間起:2017-08-01
計畫執行期間迄:2018-07-31
2018-03-01
2018-03-31
臺南、高雄、屏東在學的大學學生
1
001
01
上游互惠、期望、感恩
upstream reciprocity, expectation, gratitude
在功利主義當道的社會中,倡導感恩非常重要,感恩可以改善社會的和諧,提升感恩應由教育做起。不過在學術研究上,感恩有些缺口未釐清。 第一個研究重點是感恩與上游互惠行為的關係,過去研究指出感恩有助於互惠,但主要強調施恩者與受恩者之間的互相幫助,本研究將互惠的概念拓展至幫助非施恩者的第三人,稱之為上游互惠,探討感恩經驗愈豐富的大學學生,是否愈會有上游互惠的行為。 第二個研究重點是恩惠的來源與對施恩者的期望在感恩情緒與行為上扮演的角色,過去的感恩研究探討較多的是恩惠的因素與受恩者的個人特質,施恩者的因素多探討施恩者的動機,至於施恩者是誰探討較少,本研究認為即使恩惠相同與受恩者相同,但施恩者不同,產生的結果可能也不同,因此本研究以對施恩者的期望為基礎,探討兩種施恩者(朋友與父母)給予相同的幫助下,大學學生感恩是否不同,以及產生的直接回報與上游互惠行為是否不同。 本研究基於問卷調查與實驗法收集資料,進行三個實證研究,研究發現大學學生的感恩經驗能提升其上游互惠行為,其次朋友的幫助與比父母的幫助更能引起大學學生的感恩、直接回報與上游互惠行為,但是當施惠者很努力付出且恩惠對受惠者很重要時,不管是朋友的幫助還是父母的幫助,受惠者都覺得很感恩。 最後,基於本研究的發現,相信有助於政府重視感恩教育,幫助教師在培養學生上游互惠行為上有方法可依循,同時可以解釋大學學生的回報行為,而且對學術研究的思維有激發的作用。
In the utilitarian society, advocating gratitude is very important. Gratitude can improve social harmony. Enhancing gratitude should start from education. However, in academic research, some gaps about gratitude are not clarified. The first research focus is the relationship between gratitude and upstream reciprocity behavior. Past research had shown that gratitude promotes reciprocity but mainly emphasizes mutual help between benefactors and beneficiaries. This study extends the concept of reciprocity to help third parties instead of returning help to one’s benefactors, called as upstream reciprocity, to explore the more grateful experience for university students, whether the more the behavior of upstream reciprocity. The second research focus is the role which is played by the source of favors and the expectation for the benefactors on gratitude emotion and gratitude behavior. The past study of gratitude mostly explored related favor factors and personal traits of beneficiaries, and related benefactor factors mostly limited on benefactor motivation. There are very few studies to explore who the benefactor is. This study considers that even if the favor is the same and the beneficiary is the same, but the result may be different only if the benefactor is not the same. Therefore, based on the expectation for the benefactor, the study explores if a same help is provided by two kinds of benefactors (friends and parents) to university students, whether they have different gratitude as well as different direct reciprocity and behavior of upstream reciprocity. This study based on questionnaire and experiment method to collect data, and conducted three empirical studies. The findings are as following. First, the gratitude experiences of university students can enhance their upstream reciprocity behaviors. Second, the helping of friends than the helping of parents can induce university students’ gratitude, direct reciprocity and behavior of upstream reciprocity, still when the benefactor gives heavy efforts and the favor is very important to the beneficiary, no matter is the helping of friends or the helping of parents, the beneficiary all feels very gratitude. Finally, based on the findings of this study, it is believed that the government will pay more attention to the education of gratitude, help the teachers to get some methods to cultivate the students\' upstream reciprocity behavior, explain the reciprocity behavior of university students, and stimulate the thinking of academic research.
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