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考慮景觀及糧食安全價值下的台灣農地最適面積之估計
Estimating the Optimal Farm Land Levels in Taiwan with the Landscape and Food Security Values
1.曾偉君
1.Wei-chun Tseng
1.國立中興大學應用經濟系
1.Department of Applied Economics, National Chung Hsing University
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1.國立中興大學應用經濟系
1.Department of Applied Economics, National Chung Hsing University
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1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):2004-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):2005-07-31
2005-04-012005-04-30
A.16 收到日期:2005-08-01
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澎湖、金門、連江縣除外之台灣地區客戶。

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C.2 聯絡日期:2005-08-02
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1.國立中興大學應用經濟系
1.Department of Applied Economics, National Chung Hsing University
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C.7 資料公開日期:2005-08-01
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1.水稻田
2.條件評估法
3.糧食安全及景觀價值
1.CVM
2.Food Security
3.Landscape Value
4.Rice Paddy
 根據農業年報的統計資料發現,台灣在近20年中的耕地面積平均每年減少1萬4千公頃,而在近十年間(1991~2000年)平均每年減少約1萬1千至1 萬2千 公頃左右。此種耕地面積的遂漸減少,反映出土地在農業部門的相對報酬較其它部門低。再加上加入世界貿易組織而大幅度的開放國外農產品進口,將導致更多的農 業耕地面積移轉至非農業部門。若以此時間趨勢推算,預估20年後(或2020年)的農業耕地面積可能只剩下60萬公頃左右。

上述所解釋的農地移轉現象是從土地在農業的生產角度來說明,然而農地除了俱有農業生產上的功能之外,還具有生態和糧食安全等功能 (Anderson, 2000) 。例如農地產生之綠色田園景觀以及農地孕育之各種野生動植物豐富了我們的生活,這些價值,正以公共財形式無償地給消費者享用。另外台灣的農地還俱有提供糧 食安全之功能,特別是在可能發生台海危機的情形,而導致缺乏食物時,農地所提供的價值可能顯著超過其農產品之市場價值。當這樣的農地價值未被計入時,台灣 農地的數量可能會遠低於其最適的數量。

因此, 本研究擬利用條件評估法 (contingent valuation method)估計此兩種農地重要之額外價值—亦即景觀(landscape)及糧食安全(food safety)功能對國人之價值,將此價值納入數學規劃農業部門模型(agricultural sector model)之後,再來決定最適的農地數量。本研究為國內外少數將非市場財之估計與數學規劃模型結合之研究。利於擷取兩種方法之特性-前者可用於評估沒有 交易資料之特殊財貨之價值,後者可同時考量與研究主題有關之整個農業部門及貿易之影響。另外,此二價值的評估,亦將有助於對地或綠色補貼(green box)措施之依據。對我國農業政策及農民生活有其重要性。

According to the Agricultural Year Book, each year Taiwan has being losing about fourteen thousand hacre farmland during the past twenty years. This figure has reduced to about eleven thousand hacer to twelve thousand hacer from 1991 to 2000 but is still quit astonishing. The farmland conversion shows that the farm sector has lower reward than other sectors do. Since Taiwan has joined the WTO in last year, Taiwan’s relatively non-competitive farming would speed up the conversion further more. There will be about six hundred hacer left should the conversion trend is maintained.

The above phenomenon is based on the production perspective only. However, farmland provides other service such as the ecological and food safety functions. For example, the country view and biodiversities enrich people’s lives. The public enjoys these services without any payments. Meanwhile, Taiwan is at a higher risk of a major conflict with her enemy than most other countries in the world do. In case of such a crisis, possible blockade makes the food safety issue more important toward the Taiwanese. The value of food is much higher than its market values. To conclude, Taiwanese farmland is under-provided when these externalities are not taken into account.

Therefore, this study plans to use the contingent valuation method to estimate both the landscape value and food safety value of Taiwanese farmland. Then incorporating these values into a Taiwanese mathematical programming agricultural sector model, and calculate the optimal farmland quantity. This study is one of few studies that combine the non-market valuation methods and the sector model. The former can estimate the value of non-transaction goods and the later can analyze the whole farm sector and the effects of trade. Also, this study can provide the base of complementarities due to the landscape and the food safety values of farmland. Thus it is of great importance toward the agricultural policy and the farmers’ live quality.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:2006-01-27
D.17 預定釋出日期:2006-06-21
D.18 初次釋出日期:2006-06-21
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2006-06-21
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E93001-1
追蹤清單
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