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C00063
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一般廢棄物(垃圾)收費技術研究
A study of Fee-Charging Techniques of General Solid Waste Disposal
1.錢玉蘭
1.Yu-lan Chien
1.中華經濟研究院
1.Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research
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1.中華經濟研究院
1.Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research
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1.行政院環境保護署
1.Environmental Protection Administration
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):0000-00-00
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):0000-00-00
1997-01-011997-02-28
A.16 收到日期:0000-00-00
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台灣大都會地區 20-74歲的總人口數為母群體,並以內政部八十三年度臺閩地區人口統計資料為依據。範圍為:北部地區:北部地區(臺北縣,臺北市,基隆市)、臺中地區(臺中縣,臺中市)、以及高雄地區(高雄縣、高雄市)。

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C.2 聯絡日期:1999-01-07
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1.中華經濟研究院
1.Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research
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C.7 資料公開日期:0000-00-00
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臺灣地區垃圾製造量逐年增加,垃圾問題帶給地方環境與居民生活相當大的壓力與衝擊。而現行隨水費附徵垃圾清除處理費的作法,使得家戶繳交之垃圾費與其垃圾量相關性低,因此缺乏垃圾減量的誘因。又由於目前水費受供水成本與水管口徑大小(決定基本費或基本度數)的影響很大,按照水費附徵垃圾費對某些水管口徑低於或高於平均口徑之家戶不甚公平,而且對有作回收的家戶亦不公平;另外,非自來水使用地區之收費相當困難。預見日後垃圾費反映100%清除處理成本時,以上問題將更形嚴重,因此有必要重新檢討現行的垃圾收費方式。本研究旨在探討臺灣地區現行一般廢棄物收費方式及管理制度上所面臨的問題,期望經由綜合考量經濟理論層面、國外實際執行經驗及國內民眾意見,而能設計出符合我國垃圾管理目標之可行垃圾收費制度。研究內容主要分為五大部分:(1)分析臺灣地區垃圾清理的現況及垃圾收費問題,(2)根據經濟理論基礎探討各種垃圾清理財源和收費方式之優劣,(3)蒐集彙整國外垃圾收費之實際執行經驗與成效,(4)調查國內民眾對有關垃圾收費、資源回收以及垃圾管理方面的意見,(5)建議國內可行之垃圾收費制度。參考各國收費經驗發現,許多國家亦面臨垃圾問題且自1990年代開始採取「垃圾計價」、「廢棄物減量」及「資源回收計畫」等綜合性之廢棄物管理制度,期能有效減少垃圾製造,並達成資源回收再利用。垃圾收費制度也漸由定額費用制演變為單位計價制。外國的實例顯示,實施單位計價制使得垃圾減量及資源回收的成效顯著。在實證研究上,針對臺灣三大都會區(臺北、臺中及高雄地區)進行問卷調查。本研究調查結果顯示,臺灣三大都會區的家戶有作資源回收的比例不低,平均為74.8%;但回收的項目不多,願意回收卻無處可送的資源垃圾也很多。一般民眾希望清潔隊能同時擔任協助回收的角色,也有不少人認為固定回收點也很方便民眾作回收。大多數民眾都認為垃圾問題嚴重,改善的作法除興建垃圾焚化廠及加強資源回收外,亦有12.3%民眾認為應從改善垃圾收費方式著手。有關民眾對垃圾處理費徵收辦法的看法,以行政區域來看,臺北與臺中地區淨支持人數最多的收費辦法是按家庭人口數每人徵收定額費用、其次是採混合制。高雄地區淨支持人數最多的收費辦法依次是按垃圾袋徵收變動費率、按垃圾貼紙徵收變動費率、以及採混和制。以市鎮型態來看,直轄市與省轄市淨支持人數最多的收費辦法是混和制,次多為按垃圾袋或家庭人口數。工商服務綜合市鎮、新興市鎮與坡地鄉鎮則按家庭人口數之淨支持人數最多,其次是混和制或垃圾袋。這些差異可作為將來採行新收費制度之民意參考。垃圾製造量需求函數之實證模型結果顯示,家庭人口數、住宅房屋面積及家庭所得對垃圾製造量的影響是正向顯著關係,也和日常生活的用水用電量密切相關。由於垃圾製造行為是很多因素綜合影響關連的結果,單單針對其中一種因素設計收費制度難以達到全面的公平,而且缺乏適當的垃圾減量誘因。在垃圾清理成本方面,垃圾收費方式必須反映合理的垃圾清理成本,成本項目為垃圾處理場(廠)的興建成本、設備折舊費及地方回饋金,而清理成本的分攤應包含時間機會成本的經濟概念。此外,依據經濟理論,環境維護成本中污染者來源不明確的項目,其成本應由一般稅收支應較為合理,而不應由一般民眾的家戶垃圾費負擔。研究結果指出,以臺北市為例,臺北市目前每公噸的垃圾處理成本為2421元,經考慮完整的清理成本計算後每公噸為3,406元,增加了41%左右,而應納入家戶垃圾費的部份為2,772元/公噸,較目前的成本高出14%。本研究在多方考量國內現行垃圾收費技術的問題、國內民意調查結果與垃圾製造量實證計量模型、以及國外實施垃圾收費經驗之後,提出三個國內可行之垃圾收費技術:(1)隨用水度數附徵垃圾費,(2)分區徵收不同垃圾費率,(3)垃圾袋與垃圾貼紙,並就稽征效率、充分收入、公平及垃圾減量誘因等四個評估準則討論各收費方式之優缺點。此外,本研究對未來垃圾管理制度之建議為:垃圾收費方式因地制宜,中央居於輔導立場,且逐步進行地方試辦垃圾收費制度計畫。基於地方自治與財政自主的原則,各個縣市或鄉鎮可依實際垃圾清理方式及清理成本來籌措財源。在衡量稽徵效率、收支平衡、公平、及垃圾減量等原則時,不同地區有不同的比較利益,因此應以該地區的特色和垃圾清理需求來決定最適的收費方式。中央的主要工作包括:制訂收費法源依據,設計及提供各種收費方式、原則以及執行該收費方式的步驟和注意事項;而地方則是決定實際採行何種收費方式、執行細項工作流程,如此可以明確劃分中央與地方權責。對於任何新垃圾收費制度的設計與執行,難免有思慮欠週之處,因此建議各地區可先採取較小規模的試辦計畫,帶充分吸收經驗以後再行推廣。垃圾收費方式的改變可逐步進行,不致使民眾有太大的反彈與不適應。垃圾計費也需逐步反應清理成本,可優先考慮混和費用制,因為固定成本部份可保障財源穩定性,並有降低民眾違法行為的誘因,而變動費率部分又有垃圾減量的誘因。新垃圾收費制度必須配合健全的回收體系及加強對民眾的教育宣導,以達到永續發展的目標。故地區試辦計畫必須是全民參與的,需促使政府與民眾共同合作改善垃圾問題。

As the economy continues to develop, people in Taiwan are demanding a better living environment. A side effect of the rapid economic growth, however, is the tremendous amount of gengral solid waste created. With the amount of waste multiplies, the treatment costs of solid waste have increased too rapidly for the limited fiscal budget, and the quality of weast-cleaning services cannot meet the needs of the general public. Therefore, the concept of payment-by-user has been adopted by many countries, including Taiwan. The waste fee is generally calculated as a percentage of the household's water fee. If the household does not purchase waterfrom the Water Company, it is chargeed a fixed amount. This fee-charging technique cannot guarantee that the fee will over the cost, nor is it equitable since heavier users do not necessarily pay the highest fee. It also does not give people economic incentive to reduce waste. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to design reasonable and feasible techniques to collect water fee. This should ensure that the following goals can be attained: (1) to cover the cost of waste treatment, (2) to creat an equitable fee system, (3)to creat incentives to reduce the amount of water, (4) to facilitate the collecting of fees. This study includes nine chapters. The general situation of managing soild waste and the problems with the present waste-fee-charging technique in Taiwan are discussed in chapter 2; Chapter 3 discusses the economic theory for collecting waste fee from household; Chapter 4 examines the strength and weakness of the waste-fee-charging techniques practiced in other countries; Chapter 5 analyzes the degree of acceptance of various charge techniques by the Taiwan's general public; Chapter 6 estimates the household's demand for waste-cleaning services. Chapter 7 calculates the supply cost of waste-cleaning servies; Chapter 8 suggests three different fee-charging techniques and discuesses the administrative structure and regulation needed to facilitate the techniques. At the end, chapter 9 concludes. From the empirical estimation result of the demand model for waste-cleaning services, it shows that the quantity of waste produced by household is positively related to the numbers of household members, the dwelling area, and family income. Also, the water use (or water fee) and electricity use (or electricity fee) are positively signficant. We can thus conclude that the waste amount produced by a household are affected by multiple factors, and any waste-fee-charging technique which fails to consider all related factors will be lack of incentives for waste reductioin. Three fee-charging techniques of general solid waste disposal are suggested in this study: (1)charging waste fee accordingto the amount of water used by the household, (2)charging waste fee according to the average waste amount in the household's residential area, (3)charging waste fee according to waste bags or stickers purchased by the household. This study also suggests that let local governments (people), which are responsible for implementing the waste-fee-charging program, decide their own techniques, and the EPA only acts as the program's supervisor, responsible for making regulation, writing program guidelines, evaluating local governments' performances, and so on.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:2000-01-14
D.17 預定釋出日期:2000-04-29
D.18 初次釋出日期:2000-09-15
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2000-09-15
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-C00063-1
https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/C00063
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