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E98051
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本土文化性學校文化新構面/「積德修行學校文化量表」之建構與檢驗:以佛教小學、特殊學校、公立小學教師之組織承諾與教師效能檢驗其效果
Construction and Exam of a New Component of Domestic Schools\' Culture, an Inventory of Accumulated Beneficences and Ascetics\' School Culture, through Teachers\' Organizational Commitment and Effectiveness to Examine Its Effect
1.鄭燿男
1.Jao-nan Cheng
1.國立臺東大學教育學系(所)
1.Department of Education, National Taitung University
001,002,003,004
1.國立臺東大學教育學系(所)
1.Department of Education, National Taitung University
002
1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):2009-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):2010-07-31
2010-09-152010-10-15
A.16 收到日期:2013-01-30
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台灣公立小學、特殊學校、佛教小學

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1318
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C.2 聯絡日期:2013-03-19
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1.國立臺東大學教育學系(所)
1.Department of Education, National Taitung University
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C.7 資料公開日期:2012-08-01
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1.學校文化量表
2.積德修行文化
3.組織承諾
4.教師效能
1.Inventory of School Culture
2.The Accumulated Beneficence and Asceticculture
3.Organizational Commitment
4.Teacher’s Effectiveness
 每一所學校有不同的行為模式與價值信念,因而有不同的學校文化;學校文化對於學校教師行為具有長期的影響,因此眾多研究顯示學校文化是影響教師效能、教 師組織承諾最重要的因素之一。但是,台灣過去學校文化的研究,多以客位研究 --驗證西方理論為基礎,雖獲得許多研究支持,但是卻缺乏本土社會文化底蘊的設想。中研院民族學研究所的研究資料顯示台灣有65%-70%民眾的宗教信仰 是民間信仰(包含佛教與道教);受到民間信仰影響,台灣民眾有很深刻的積功德、修善行、善惡報應等價值信念與行為模式。因此,積德修行可以說是本土社會文 化中潛存的價值信念與行為模式,亦即積德修行文化可能是社會文化底蘊中的文化之一。學校是一小型的社會,學校也可能有積德修行的文化,學校也是非營利組 織,學校教育也經常展現善心、行善、耐心、助童、道德、積德;因此,學校非常可能存在積德修行文化。近年,天主教世界中的泰瑞莎修女(Mother Teresa),在印度建立「垂死者之家」(Home for the Dying)服務窮人、慈濟功德會的證嚴上人在台灣建立慈濟大學、慈濟小學,以行善與大愛的精神與價值信念,建構助人的組織與學校,而使得教師(或義工) 在此類型學校(或組織)中,願意犧牲奉獻,展現效能與組織承諾。因此,以行善、慈善、慈悲、利他助人為理念的學校文化,對於公立學校或特殊學校這樣需要更 多愛心與耐心的非營利組織,具有深刻的意義。台灣過去已有研究者以質性研究關注慈善性教師組織文化的議題;研究結果發現行善大愛故事、教室被隱喻為福田、 發願助人、慈悲喜捨、惜福造福、種如是因,得如是果等組織文化的意含。這樣的結果符應了許多民間善書、儒學、佛學中所提到的積功德、修善行的文化意涵。本研究因而以此為研究核心,期望建構新的學校文化構念--積德修行學校文化,以做為後續學校文化研究之基礎研究。為了檢驗積德修行學校文化在學校的情況,本研究之做法如下:第一階段運用學校文化的研究成果,發展初步學校文化的量表與問題(item)(包含科層文化、支持文化、創新文化、學習型文化)。第二階 段透過教師組織文化的質性研究成果及訪問調查蒐集佛教小學、特殊學校或公立小學學校教師所知覺的積德修行文化的情況,初步編製積德修行文化的問題 (item)。第三階段將前述初步編製完成的科層文化、支持文化、創新文化、學習型文化與積德修行文化的問題(item)進行專家內容效度檢查。第四階段 進行量表調查,以LISREL統計軟體進行科層文化、支持文化、創新文化、學習型文化與積德修行文化之區別效度(discriminating validity)與輻合效度 (convergent validity)檢驗,以了解科層文化、支持文化、創新文化、學習型文化與積德修行文化,是否均可成為獨立的因子。若是研究結果發現積德修行文化與其餘 各項學校文化內涵具有區別效度,則本研究將可初步建構一個學校文化--積德修行文化層面,開展學校文化研究之學術意涵。此外,本研究也希望檢驗所發展的學 校文化量表之適用性,因此引用「組織承諾前因後果模式」為理論基礎,可檢證學校文化與組織承諾的預測關係,以「自我價值論」為理論基礎,可檢驗學校文化與 教師效能的預測關係。若是研究結果能得到積德修行學校文化對於組織承諾、教師效能具有預測力,或是預測力高於其他學校文化(包含科層文化、支持文化、創新 文化、學習型文化),則表示本研究所建構的積德修行學校文化量表之構念將會是具有「本土性學術價值」的基礎研究。

Different schools have different behavior models and values that their school cultures are different. School cultures have a long term influence on teachers’ behavior, so many studies results show the school culture is the most important factor influencing for teachers’ effectiveness and organizational commitment. In the past, the studies of school culture which examined the west organizational culture theories were taken as the basis. Although many studies support those theories but they seldom consider local social culture for a school culture. A journal from Institute of Ethnology of the Academia Sinica shows for 65% to 70% of people have a local religious belief (including Buddhism and Taoism). People have a deep sense of value and behavior of the accumulated beneficence, ascetic, retribution because of the local religious. Therefore, the accumulated beneficence and ascetic exist in Taiwanese value and behavior in social culture that it means one of our social cultures is the accumulated beneficence and ascetic. School is a mini-society, which probably has the accumulated beneficence and ascetic culture and it is a non-profit organization. School that performs kindness, ascetic, patience, helping students, ethics and accumulated beneficence that exists in schools. In recent years, Mother Teresa built the Home for the Dying to serve the poor and sick in India. Master Cheng Yen in Tzi Chi Foundation built the Tzi Chi University and elementary school, and with spirit, value of kindness and love, she build schools to help people, influencing teachers or volunteers spontaneously contributing and donating which show commitment and effectiveness. For this reason, school cultures with ascetic, kindness, mercy, altruism, have a deep meaning for public schools and special education schools that are non-profit organizations they need more patience and love to treat students. The culture of teachers’ charity that has concern in a qualitative research in Taiwan, reveals the story of kindness and love, classroom like field of fortune, vowing to help, mercy and giving, cherishing and making fortune, cause and result, which exist in organizational cultures. The above results conform to religious brochure, Confucianism, Buddhism meaning accumulated beneficence and ascetic. The core hopes to construct a new school’s culture, the accumulated beneficence and ascetic culture to be used and to be a basis to continue school culture study. Four steps are adopted to test how the accumulated beneficence and ascetic culture work in school: 1.applying the results of school culture to develop some items in a primary inventory of school culture (including bureaucratic culture, supportable culture, creative culture, learning organizational culture), 2. organizing the inventory of the accumulated beneficence and ascetic culture through a qualitative research on teachers’ organizational culture and collecting some data by investigations from Buddhism school, special education school, or public elementary school. 3.examining the expert validity through surveys at the bureaucratic culture, supportable culture, creative culture, learning organizational culture, and the accumulated beneficence and ascetic culture. 4. surveying through LISREL to analyze the discriminating validity and convergent validity to understanding whether the bureaucratic culture, supportable culture, creative culture, learning organizational culture, and the accumulated beneficence and ascetic culture can be the influential factor. If positive, it means the study has constructed a new domestic school culture and developed its academic value. In addition, the study hopes to test the adequateness of the very school culture inventory, so applying the caused and resulted model of organizational commitment as the basis to exam school culture and organizational commitment relationship, and by the self-esteem theory to exam teacher’s effectiveness. If the result is positive or the accumulated beneficence and ascetic culture can better predict organizational commitment and effectiveness than the bureaucratic culture, supportable culture, creative culture, learning organizational culture, it means the study has constructed a domestic academic school culture, the accumulated beneficence and ascetic culture, and it is a valuable based research.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:2013-03-21
D.17 預定釋出日期:2013-07-12
D.18 初次釋出日期:2013-07-12
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2013-07-12
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E98051-1
https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/E98051
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