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E98050
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追蹤觀光餐旅碩士生離職因素之長期研究:學習、進入到離開
Turnover Factors from Learning, Entrance, and to Leave: A Longitudinal Panel Study of Tourism and Hospitality Masters
1.王國欽
1.Kuo-ching Wang
1.國立臺灣師範大學餐旅管理與教育研究所
1.Graduate Institute of Sport, Leisure and Hospitality Management, National Taiwan Normal University
001,002,003,004
1.國立臺灣師範大學餐旅管理與教育研究所
1.Graduate Institute of Sport, Leisure and Hospitality Management, National Taiwan Normal University
002
1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):2009-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):2012-07-31
2010-05-012010-05-30 2011-04-012011-05-15 2012-03-152012-05-30
A.16 收到日期:2013-01-15
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本 研究參考教育部(2010)統計「98學年度大專院校系所名稱及學生人數」資料,總計58系所,658位碩二生。由其中再選取符合本研究界定之觀光餐旅碩 士生的定義及範圍,以就讀系所名稱有觀光、餐旅、休閒及由觀光細分出來的旅遊或遊憩並以其為首要研究領域之研究所碩士二年級學生,總計39系所(學生人數 520人)符合本研究界定之觀光餐旅碩士生的定義及範圍,該39系所經研究者逐一接洽後,同意參與本研究調查有23系所(學生人數342人),進行調查。

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第一年236人 第二年219人 第三年204人

236
007
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C.2 聯絡日期:2013-01-16
2
1.國立臺灣師範大學餐旅管理與教育研究所
1.Graduate Institute of Sport, Leisure and Hospitality Management, National Taiwan Normal University
1
自計畫執行結束日期起二年後公開

C.7 資料公開日期:2014-08-01
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008
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001
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1.觀光餐旅碩士生
2.離職因素
3.縱向追蹤
4.現實衝擊
1.Tourism and Hospitality Masters
2.Turnover Factors
3.Longitudinal Panel Study
4.Reality Shock
觀光餐旅產業在臺灣已成為一個日益興盛的產業,由於大環境對於觀光餐旅產業看好,反應出人才培育的觀光餐旅系所快速成長,有愈來愈多觀光餐旅背景的碩士畢 業生投入相關產業就業市場。然而,觀光餐旅業員工離職率一直是高於其它產業,尤其是具高學歷的員工。過往離職因素研究大都僅從「橫斷面」(cross- sectional)切入(以在職者為樣本),少有研究從「縱斷面」(longitudinal panel)角度進行離職因素之追蹤,事實上離職因素受到個人學習成長歷程及組織內、外在環境影響,會有階段性的變化。 本研究針對全臺灣23個觀光餐旅系所共236位碩士二年級畢業生進行離職因素「三年縱向追蹤分析」,第一年調查時間為其在學期間學習專業技能開始(碩士二 年級),待同一群樣本畢業後進入產業任職期間再進行第二年及第三年調查,從不同階段調查其離職因素變化。結果證實觀光、餐旅碩士生對於「工時」、「薪資」 「產業本身」、「組織文化」、「主管領導」、「專業能力」、「其他」等離職因素認知強度,會隨著時間變化逐年(第一年、第二年至第三年)產生顯著變化。且 其中「工時」、「產業本身」成長率平均數是正向的,顯示3年來「工時」及「產業本身」二項離職因素認知變化是越來越強,另「主管領導」、「其他」平均數是 負向的,顯示3年來「主管領導」、「其他」二項離職因素認知變化是越來越弱。 本研究進一步分析樣本特性,如:性別(男、女)、學校別(公、私立)、實習(有、無)等變項對離職因素認知的影響,結果顯示女性分別在「工時」、「產業本 身」、「職涯、「組織文化」、「專業能力」、「個人」的成長率比男性高;而在「薪資」、「人際關係」、「工作本身」、「主管領導」、「其他」成長率則比男 性低;私立學校分別在「工時」、「薪資」、「人際關係」、「工作本身」、「產業本身」、「組織文化」、「主管領導」、「個人」、「其他」的成長率比公立學 校高;而在「職涯」、「專業能力」的成長率則比公立學校畢業生低;無實習經驗者在「工時」、「薪資」、「人際關係」、「工作本身」、「產業本身」、「職 涯」、「組織文化」、「個人」的成長率比有實習經驗者高;而無實習經驗者畢業後在「主管領導」、「專業能力」、「其他」的成長率則比有實習者低。另觀光餐 旅碩士員工學校教育與現實衝擊關係,並不會受到有、無實習(或產學合作)經驗干擾,但現實衝擊對離職傾向具有正向影響。 本研究透過縱斷面三年期的追縱調查瞭解碩士生的離職因素歷程,研究結果相信在離職因素及其探究上,能補足理論上對於碩士生與離職因素尚有不清之處;此外, 研究結果對於企業在離職因素之管理以及學界在課程設計,都有相當程度之貢獻與具體應用意涵。

Tourism and hospitality industries have become a prosperous business in Taiwan. In a similar fashion, the popularity of tourism and hospitality programs in Taiwan is evidenced by their growth. The numbers of programs and enrolled students have increased rapidly in recent years. However, according to the statistics of Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, employees’ turnover rate in tourism and hospitality is significantly higher than other industries, and the turnover rate of employees with a master’s degree is even higher than their colleagues with different qualifications. Graduate students in school study with high hopes and expectations and try their best to enter the industry after graduation only to be disillusioned soon and hence decide to leave the industry. Despite the extensive amount of literature addressing turnover factor, the issue is far from clear, mainly because most of the previous studies examined the relationship between turnover factor and turnover behavior solely from the “cross-sectional” perspective. Few took educational background (especially at the postgraduate level) into consideration in their discourse of turnover research. In addition, employees’ turnover factors are influenced by multiple elements, such as the history of learning and the environment (both external and internal) of organization; factors change accordingly as the person-in-question enter different stages of career development. Thus, this study intends to conduct a three-year “longitudinal panel study” to track turnover factors among 236 students who are undertaking tourism and hospitality postgraduate programs in Taiwan. The study covers all the way from their school training period to job market entry and job turnover. The result of study showed turnover factors of “working hours”, “pay”, “nature of the industry ”, “organization culture”, “leadership”, “professional capability” and “other” differ significantly from his postgraduate study to entering the job market. Among the factors, the average growth rates of “working hours” and “nature of the industry” are positive, meaning in these three years, the changes in these two perceived turnover factors, “working hours” and “nature of the industry”, have become larger and larger. And the average growth rates of “leadership” and “other” are negative, stands that in these three years, the influences in these two perceived turnover factors, “leadership” and “other”, have become less influenced. This study further analyzes the influences of the variables such as gender (male/female), school type (public

rivate), and internship (y/n) on perceived turnover factors. The result shows that the growth rates of “working hours”, “nature of the industry”, “career”, “organization culture”, “professional capability”, and “personnel” are higher with females than males, while the growth rates of “job nature”, “leadership” and “other” are the other way around. In the aspect of school types, the growth rates of “working hours”, “pay”, “interpersonal relationship”, “job nature”, “nature of the industry”, “organization culture”, “leadership”, “personnel”, and “other” are higher with private schools than public ones, while the growth rates of “career” and “professional capability” are the other way around. The growth rates of “working hours”, “pay”, “interpersonal relationship”, “job nature”, “nature of the industry”, “career”, and “organization culture”, iv “personnel” are higher with those having internship experiences than those having no internship experiences, while the growth rates of “leadership”, “professional capability”, and “other” are the other way around. In addition, for employees in the tourism and hospitality industries with a master’s degree, whether there is any internship (or industry-academic cooperation) experience has no influence on the relationship between school education and reality shock. But reality shock would positively affect new recruits’ turnover intention. Understanding the turnover factors of master is an important issue for both practitioners and academics. Few empirical studies have examined how turnover factors of masters have changed over different career stages. Results of this study have several practical implications and another contribution of this paper is to identify the gap between the industry and the school with respect to the turnover factor and the curriculum design.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:2013-05-16
D.17 預定釋出日期:2014-08-01
D.18 初次釋出日期:2014-08-01
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2014-08-01
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E98050-1
http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/E98050
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