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E98048
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影響我國偏遠與非偏遠地區國中學生學業成就之教育資源研究
Impact of Educational Resource on Junior High School Student Achievement in Taiwan Rural and Non-rural Area
1.許添明
1.Tian-ming Sheu
1.國立臺灣師範大學教育學系
1.Department of Education, National Taiwan Normal University
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1.國立臺灣師範大學教育學系
1.Department of Education, National Taiwan Normal University
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1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):2009-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):2012-01-31
2010-05-012010-06-30
A.16 收到日期:2012-06-18
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台灣國民中學學生、教師、學校

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教師:2569份; 學生:9685份; 學校:340份


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C.2 聯絡日期:2012-06-19
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1.國立臺灣師範大學教育學系
1.Department of Education, National Taiwan Normal University
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C.7 資料公開日期:2014-02-01
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008
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1.資源投資模式
2.偏遠地區
3.學業樂觀
1.Resource-Investment Model
2.Rurality
3.Academic Optimism
 學校對於學業的影響關係,一直是曖昧不明,且不相一致的。如此一來,政府每年在學校投諸大量的經費,其合理性就令人質疑。因此,本研究計畫為探討學校對 於學生學業的影響,同時納入家庭做為控制,並有別於過去研究將資源與投資混合討論的方式,如此將看不出學校和家庭在既有資源脈絡下的決定,故研究者將兩者 分開,以看出資源對於投資的影響情形,此將有助於我們更細膩地去檢視資源對投資與學生成就的影響,除了資源與投資對於學生成就的影響外,較為內顯的學業樂 觀也納入考量,共同探討三者對於學生學業的影響。 本研究計畫以兩年的時間完成,從2009年08月01日至2012年01月31日為止,前半年的研究主要在於資源、投資與學業樂觀的理論探討,和問卷的編 制,在編制問卷的過程中並召開專家會議,以形成正式問卷,隨後一年半則主要在催收問卷、剔除無效的遺漏值,以及分析結果和撰寫報告。本研究採用問卷調查, 針對偏遠與非偏遠國中來進行抽測,將學校分為偏遠地區與非偏遠地區學校兩類,依照兩群學校比例進行隨機抽樣,為求學校的同質性,我們剔除國中小合併的國 中、高中附屬國中、實驗國中、私立國中,依據教育部統計處最新的資料,並排除掉上述四類國中後,全台公立國中為706所,其中偏遠學校扣除掉尚未開始招生 的南平國中後,總數為203所,故非偏遠學校共計502所,偏遠學校全部施測,非偏遠學校則抽對等數量,即203所來施測,並會依據各縣市所有的校數比例 進行分層隨機抽樣,結果非偏遠學校共選擇205所,因此全台國中共抽取408所。剔除遺漏值與填答無效的問卷後,最後共計236所納入分析,其中112所 位於偏遠,其他124所則為處非偏遠地區,共蒐集5,581份有效問卷。 研究結果發現偏遠地區學校投資無效係起因於先天條件不佳,在相同的學校投資下,偏遠地區學校投資僅有教師專業發展有顯著影響力,然而非偏遠地區則多出了科 技設備、學生活動,且兩地區在控制學校資源(先天條件)後,偏遠學校專業發展的影響力消失,非偏遠校三項的影響力則不變;尤其是學習環境的營造,無論偏遠 與非偏遠地區此項投資對於提升學生成就皆大有助益,而學校可以透過親職教育來教導如何幫助提升學生成就。雖然先天條件,政府難有施力點,然而卻可做為未來 相關政策的指標,針對父母教育較低、單親家庭、子女數較多的家庭進行改善,而投資的方向可從本研究的顯著投資指標為參考方向,特別針對這群學習相對弱勢的 孩子,充足其學習物品、加辦課後照顧等措施,以增強他們的數學學習;學業樂觀對學業成就亦有顯著影響,然而我們更進一步發現非偏遠地區的影響力大於偏遠地 區,可見學業樂觀對於非偏遠地區更加重要,因此政府在提升非偏遠地區數學成績可優先加以考慮。

This final paper is to report the progress from August 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of the resource and investment from school and family and academic optimism on student achievement between rural and non-rural area. Data were gathered from 5,581 Taiwanese students in 236 junior high schools using stratified random sampling. Of the data, 2,358 students from 112 rural area schools and 3,223 students from 124 non-rural area schools were sampled. Rural schools were chosen from a database where counties reported relevant information. Standards for rural schools include various factors that are more complicated than those adopted by PISA (PISA uses only population density), such as the distance of the school from the city, amounts of aboriginal students, and population density. The results show that the invalid investment in rural schools is due to the fact of poor congenital conditions. Rural schools have less experienced teachers than non-rural schools. Although rural schools possess higher quality investments, without stable and experienced personnel, they can do little to improve student achievement. This conclusion is supported by the higher variance rate explained by school resources than by school investments. Resource and investment disparities at the family level can also explain disappointing returns on investments in rural areas. Students in rural areas are relatively disadvantaged. The parents of these students receive less education and earn less money than their non-rural counterparts, and even their discussions with their children cannot positively affect math achievement levels. The effects of increases in school resources and investments may be restricted because of family conditions. This paper also demonstrates the necessity of distinguishing between resources and investments, shifting the focus of student achievement research from comparisons between the influence of families and schools to discussions of preexisting conditions and improvement strategies. Both families and schools are limited by their resources, but this study’s findings suggest that families and schools can improve student achievement levels through appropriate investments. Although families still have a greater effect on students than schools, schools are responsible for teaching parents how to enhance a child’s learning environment. Only by adopting this approach can families and schools cooperate to improve education, regardless of where a student lives. This discovery has the potential to inaugurate a new field of research on the influence of families and schools that does not compare the effects of the two but instead offers useful strategies for improvement, especially in poorer areas. The results above have been published three conference papers in international conference (Australian Association for Research in Education, Association for Education Finance and Policy, and International Test Commission). These all gained international peers’ attention. Besides, there is one article under review of SSCI journal. To sum up, this project has achieved the previous goals.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:2012-12-12
D.17 預定釋出日期:2014-02-01
D.18 初次釋出日期:2014-02-05
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2016-03-28
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E98048-1
http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/E98048
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