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E89019
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習慣與性格特質兩概念的分析與比較:以柯氏基本習慣與EYSENCK等人性格特質的比較為例
A Study on Habits and Personality Traits: With Ko\'s Basic Habits and the Basic Personality Traits of Eysenck et al. as the Variables
1.柯永河
1.Yung-ho Ko
1.國立臺灣大學心理學系
1.Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University
001,002,003,004
1.國立臺灣大學心理學系
1.Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University
002
1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):1999-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):2000-10-31
A.16 收到日期:2001-07-18
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2018


2018
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C.2 聯絡日期:2001-07-23
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1.國立臺灣大學心理學系
1.Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University
1
C.7 資料公開日期:2002-11-01
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1.人格特質
2.習慣
3.學業成績
4.讀書習慣
1.Academic Achievement
2.Habits Study habits
3.Personality Traits
本研究之目的有二,其一是比較習慣概念與人格特質概念對於高中職學生學業成績預測力的高低,其二是分析人格特質測驗所含習慣測驗項目的百分比,以瞭解人格心 理學家心目中的人格概念在評估、測量的階段與習慣心理學家在評估、測量習慣的階段具體作法上有何不同,或相似性有多高。 為了完成本研究的第一個目的,研究者使用兩個測量工具,其一為 Cattell 的16PF 中的八個量尺。過去,Cattell 報告說,此八個量尺(分別命名為 1. 情緒穩定性 2. 恃強性 3. 有恆性 4. 情緒敏感性 5. 敢為性 6. 獨立性 7. 自律性 8. 聰慧性)對於高中生學業成績具有良好的預測力;第二個工具是本研究者根據習慣基本定義自編的讀書習慣量表。 此量表共含 74 個項目,所有項目均由本研究者依習慣定義擬題,最後以因素分析方法以因素固有值 1.0 為判準,將它們歸類為 14 個因素 ;各因素命名分別為:1. 讀書時間長短習慣 2.不良讀書習慣 3. 學業成績抱負水準習慣 4. 為父母及自己將來讀書的習慣 5.考前緊張習慣 6. 為讀書而讀書 7. 良好讀書習慣 8. 與學業好的同學成為好朋友的習慣 9. 良好的準備考試習慣 10. 單獨一個人準備考試的習慣 11. 考場的時間利用習慣 12.不願意為父母考好成績的習慣 13. 認真上課的習慣 14.與好成績的同學結交的交友習慣。以上兩類量尺各分量尺的內部一致性分別為:16PF 量表的 (1) 穩定量尺 (α =.51) (2) 恃強性 ( α =.41) (3) 有恆性(α =.41) (4) 敏感性 (α =.41) (5) 敢為性 (α =.70) (6) 獨立性 (α =.57 ) (7) 自律性 (α =.43) (8) 聰慧性 (α =.45) ;讀書習慣量表的 (1)長時間讀書習慣 (α =.80) (2) 不良讀書習慣 (α =.74) (3) 名次抱負水準習慣 (α =.79) (4) 為父母讀書 (α =.85) 的習慣 (5) 考前良好情緒習慣(α =.67) (6) 為讀書而讀書習慣 (α =.53) (7) 良好讀書方法習慣 (α =.74) (8) 只有一題不能算 (9) 良好考試準備習慣 (α =.61) (10) 單獨準備考試習慣 (α =.47) (11) 良好考場時間利用習慣 (α =.73) (12) 不願為父母讀書的習慣 (α =.10) (13) 上課用心習慣 (α =.61) (14) 與好成績者成好友的交友習慣 (α =.20)。中譯版的 16PF 上述八個量尺中有者內部一致性稍低,但題目內容盡量保持該測驗原作者的基本理念。 上述兩套測驗的編製與修訂完成之後,研究者將兩測驗合訂成一個題本,以班級為單位將它實施於台北市 15 所高中職學校,每校均有三班學生參加,學生總數是男女合計共 2018 名,他們分別為高一、高二或高三學生。這 15 所高中職學校包含程度被公認為最好的一直到最差的。 將測驗所得資料以班級為單位進行逐步回歸分析。進行分析時,以每名學生在班級主科成績計算出來的名次為依變項,而以 16PF 8 個量尺每量尺或以讀書習慣 14 個量尺每量尺,或以兩個測量工具合併的 22 個量尺每量尺的總分為獨變項分為三次分別進行。至於獨變項可進入逐步回歸分析程式而被選為對於學業成績具有獨特顯著效果的判準是設定在 0.05 水準。 所得的分析結果如下:(1) 在 46 次的逐步回歸分析中,16PF 的 8 個獨變項中能進入分析過程而最後被選為具有獨特顯著預測力者共有 25 次 (54.3%);而讀書習慣量表的 14 個獨變項中能進入分析過程並最後能被選為具有顯著預測力者共有 45 次 (97.8%);(2)16PF8 個獨變項與依變項學業成績之間所能構成的最低與最高複相關係數範圍是.302~.728,而讀書習慣量表 14 個獨變項與學業成績名次之間所能構成的最低與最高複相關係數範圍是落在遠高於前者的.442~.886;(3) 若將每一所學校為單位比較以 16PF 8 個因素為獨變項所得逐步回歸係數和由讀書習慣 14 個因素為獨變項所得逐步回歸係數,則在15 所高中的比較後所得的結果是 93% 的比較都是由讀書習慣 14 個因素逐步回歸係數遠高於由 16PF 的 8 個因素逐步回歸係數,顯示讀書習慣獨變項比性格因素獨變項對於學業成績優劣更具有預測力的說法幾乎很少受到學校素質好壞之影響,而可應用於大多數學校; (4)46 次逐步回歸分析中,有 39 次高學業名次抱負水準習慣因素能進入逐步回歸程式中,而且有 36 次是最具有解釋或預測力,顯示學生為自己設定學業成就目標對學業好壞具有重要影響力。 為了完成此研究的第二個目的,研究者將 Neo PI-R Form S 的 240 個測驗項目逐一加以判斷審視其符不符合習慣測驗項目基本構造;凡項目中清楚列出刺激與反應,以及刺激和反應間的連結關係高密切度或高頻率度者皆稱為典型的 習慣測驗項目。 使用上述判準詳讀評定 Neo PI-R Form S 每一個測驗項目後所得的結果是134 個項目具有習慣測驗項目的基本構造;易言之,Neo PI-R Form S 的 240個測驗項目中有 56%,亦即一半以上,的項目是以典型的習慣測驗型態撰寫出來。若就 Neo PI-R 量表 30 個量尺的每一量尺分別計算習慣測驗典型構造項目的佔有百分比率,則可發現到,這比率的分佈範圍頗廣;其中,佔有比率最低的是外向因素中的正向情緒特質(僅 佔 0.125%),居中的是合群特質(佔50%),而佔有比率最高的是價值觀念特質(佔 100%)。 由以上所得結果可知,雖然目前被公認為最好,而典型的人格測驗也使用了一半以上的典型習慣測驗項目,而有時一個量尺所含的全部項目都按照典型的習慣測驗構 造撰寫出來。既然一個人格測驗所含的項目中有一半是屬於習慣測驗項目,那麼「人格」與「習慣」兩概念的差異在哪裡?有否需要把兩者分開使用?若一定主張要 把兩概念分開使用,那麼人格要如何加以界定?如何把界定出來的人格概念的內容不使用習慣習慣測驗的基本構造而使用人格測驗的基本構造(假如有這種構造的 話)清楚地在每一項目表達出來,並且以後在人格測驗中不再含有任一習慣測驗項目。

This study has two objects, one is to compare the concepts of habit and that of personality trait to see which one of them is superior in predicting the academic achievement of the senior high school students, and the other object is to find out how the personality theorist dose differently from the habit theorist in the stage of measuring personality traits and habits, respectively.In order to find out the answer to the first object , the present research used two instruments; the first instrument is the eight subscales in the Cattle\'s 16 PF. Each of them was found to be a valuable factor in predicting the academic achievement of senior high school students , and the second instrument is a study habit scale developed by the present researcher himself according to the definition of habit, as written down also by the present researcher. The internal consistency chronbach α values of most subscales were within the acceptable range. A battery of questionnaires consisting of the above-mentioned two instruments was administered to a group of 2018 senior high school students , including male and female students attending in 15 different senior high schools in Taipei area. Some of the senior high schools are top ranked and some are bottom ranked and the rest are middle ranked in the academic quality of the school as a whole. The data obtained were analyzed using the stepwise multiple correlation analysis; Firstly the analysis was applied to the data obtained from the eight subscales of the 16PF, and secondarily to the data from the 14 subscales of the Study Habits Questionnaires, and finally to the data from both the 16PF and the Study Habit Questionnaires. The results revealed (i) that the study habit scores are significantly superior to the 16PF scores in predicting the academic achievement of senior high school students, implying that the concept of study habits is a much better than that of personality traits, at least in the task of predicting academic achievement of the senior high school students; and (ii) that some of the16PF scores are complementary to study habit scores in making a better prediction of academic achievement of the senior high school students. In order to find out the answer to the second object of the present study, the 240 items of the Neo PI-R Form S were analyzed itemwise according to the basic structure of habit items as described by the present researcher. The results of the analysis revealed that about 56% of items in the Neo PI-R Form S are written exactly in the basic form of a typical habit test item as described by the present researcher previously. Further-more, it was found that some scale of the Neo PI-R Form S even contained 100% of habit-type items. The present investigator, therefore, proposed that in the future study, the basic or stereotyped form of personality traits item be clearly defined, so that every personality inventory should contain only the test item which is clearly different from the habit item style but perfectly fits to the basic form of the personality traits.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:2002-06-05
D.17 預定釋出日期:2002-06-24
D.18 初次釋出日期:2002-07-18
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2002-07-18
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E89019-1
https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/E89019
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