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E88129
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啟智教育教師離職傾向之研究
A Study on the Intention to Quit of Special Education Teachers for Students with Mental Retardation
1.林千惠
1.Chien-hui Lin
1.國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系
1.Department of Special Education, National Changhua University of Education
001,002,003,004
1.國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系
1.Department of Special Education, National Changhua University of Education
002
1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):1998-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):1999-10-31
1999-02-151999-05-30
A.16 收到日期:2000-03-06
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全台灣啟智教育教師

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306


306
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C.2 聯絡日期:2000-03-07
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1.國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系
1.Department of Special Education, National Changhua University of Education
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C.7 資料公開日期:1999-11-01
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008
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001
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1.啟智教育
2.調查研究
3.離職傾向
1.Intention to Quit
2.Mental Retardation
3.Survey Study
「特 殊教育教師的異動率偏高」這是國內外文獻普遍反應的一項事實,此一現象卻正好與目前政府全力推展特殊教育,並迅速擴充特教資源的努力,大相逕庭。造成特教 教師異動率偏高的原因何在?其影響因素究竟為何?能否在教師開始興起離職的念頭時就予以即時的輔導,以防止人才的流失?這些議題都是值得深入探究的。依目 前國內對身心障礙兒童安置現況觀之,智能障礙學生是最主要的服務對象,啟智班自然成為各種特教安置措施中數量最多的一類,由此顯見啟智班教師是造成特教師 資高異動率的主要族群。若能針對此一族群進行離職傾向之研究,實不失為解決目前啟智班專業師資大量流失的途徑之一。 為了瞭解啟智教師的離職傾向並探討不同背景變項、工作滿意、工作壓力、專業效能、工作信念、及對制度與現況認同程度等影響變項與離職傾向間的關係,本研究 以兩階段進行:第一階段利用大規模問卷調查方式(N=306, 有效回收率81.4%) ,以自編之「啟智教師離職傾向調查表」進行國中小啟智班教師之調查。第二階段藉由問卷分析結果選取具特殊離職傾向之教師(高離職傾向者7名,低離職傾向者 6名),以一對一晤談方式進一步蒐集其所遭遇之實際問題、考慮離職的主因、以及對啟智教育大環境改革的期許等。研究所得資料藉由一系列量化分析,並輔以質 的探討方式,得到如下的結果: 一、啟智教師離職傾向分析 整體而言,國中小啟智教師的離職傾向屬於中等程度,且有 34.4%的抽樣對象有較高的離職意念。調查對象在「啟智教師離職傾向調查表」中的反應情形,就工作滿意度而言,教師對於特教工作情境中的滿意度低於非特 教工作情境中者;就工作壓力而言,教師在心理層面所感受到的壓力比其所承受因生理層面問題所導致之壓力為大;就專業效能而言,教師對其與學生及家長互動的 自評較高,卻對自身的專業能力評價較低;就工作信念而言,教師對「為人師表」有相當正向的看法,但對扮演『啟智』教師的角色有較多消極的看法;就制度現況 的認同度而言,教師對於啟智教學環境中的硬體部分認同度高於軟體部分,其中尤以其對校內組織間溝通協調、組織氣氛、與行政支持度最不認同。 二、不同研究變項與離職傾向間的關係 不同服務單位、年齡、任教普通班年資、以及更換工作經驗的啟智教師,在離職傾向上有顯著的差異。國小教師之離職傾向較國中教師低,年齡越大之啟智教師離職 傾向越低、從未有過轉業經驗者離職傾向較低、而具有普通班教學經驗者亦較從未執教於普通班者離職傾向為低。 三、啟智教師離職傾向之預測 啟智教師對制度與現況的認同度是預測力最大的變項,能有效解釋22.0 %的變異量,顯示教師對制度與現況的認同度越低則越有可能導致其興起離職異動的念頭。其餘尚有工作壓力、工作滿意、年齡、服務單位、工作信念、及專業效能 等六個變項,亦能有效預測啟智教師的離職意念。 四、教師考慮離開啟智教學工作的可能原因 「學校不重視特教,行政人員支持度低」、「主管領導方式不佳」、「組織績效不佳,做事缺乏效率」是調查對象認為最有可能導致其離職的原因。 五、教師對啟智教學大環境的改革期許事項 「以在職進修方式鼓勵特教現職教師接受第二專長訓練」、「制定法令規範教育主管對特殊教育所需協助項目」、「合理改善額外活動帶給啟智教師的工作負擔」則 是調查對象最樂於見到教學環境的改善事項。

Teacher turnover demands serious consideration! In Taiwan, the turnover rate among special education teachers (especially those who teach in self- contained classrooms for students with more severe handicapping conditions) is considerably high. Unfortunately, efforts to investigate this phenomenon have rarely been taken. The study was an intent to understand teachers for students with mental retardation regarding their intention to quit from job, and its relationships with job satisfaction, job stress, professional efficacy, job morale, as well as their recognition on current policy in our field. The study was conducted both quantitatively and qualitatively. First of all, a self-developed questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 306 teachers sent back the survey with a respondent rate of 81.4%. Soon after the analyses of the survey results, semi-structured personal interviews were then conducted to 7 respondents who are determined as \"the most likely quitter\" and 6 respondents who considered as \"the least likely quitter\". The collected data were analyzed to portrait the qualitative and quantitative aspects concerning factors which influence special education teachers\' withdrawal cognition. The results showed that: A. The overall turnover intention The overall tunrover intention of the respondents were moderate, the majority of teachers were willing to stay in job. However, there were 34.4% of the respondents who showed higher intention of finding another job. B. Factors related to turnover intention According to the questionnaires analyses, demographic data (i.e.,school type, age, years of experiences in normal education, and transfer experience) show statistically significant influences of a teacher\'s turnover intention. Teacher who taught in the elementary school level, in his/her older age, with several years of normal education experiences, and never have job transfer experience was considered having lower intention to quit. C. The prediction of turnover intention The degree of recognition regarding current special educaiton system and policies was found to be the most influential factor in predicting teacher\'s turnover intention. The level of job stress, job satisfaction, age, school type, job morale, and professional efficacy were also found to be effective predictor. D.The most likely reasons for quitting job Based on the analyses of survey and interview results, the most likely reasons for teachers to quit their jobs including: 1) school showed less concern on special education, 2) the leadership style of the administrative staff were not acceptable, and 3) the climate of working environment is not pleasant. E.The suggestions to improve special education working environment The suggestions to improve special education working environment including: 1) to develop alternative program for in-service training, 2) clarify the requirement for supporting specail education program from the administrative perspect, and 3) properly reduce the extra job loading of teachers for students with mental retardation.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:2003-03-14
D.17 預定釋出日期:2003-03-28
D.18 初次釋出日期:2003-04-07
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2003-04-07
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E88129-1
https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/E88129
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