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E88081
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不確定情況下環境退化管理:預警環境保證金制度之研究
Managing Environmental Degradation under Uncertainty: a Precautionary Environmental Deposit-refund Bonding System
1.曾明遜
1.Ming-hsun Tseng
1.國立臺北大學地政學系
1.Department of Land Economics and Administration, National Taipei University
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1.國立臺北大學地政學系
1.Department of Land Economics and Administration, National Taipei University
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1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):1998-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):1999-07-31
1999-03-011999-04-30
A.16 收到日期:2000-05-22
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國民中、小學教師及學生家長、大專校院專任教師

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839
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C.2 聯絡日期:2000-08-04
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1.國立臺北大學地政學系
1.Department of Land Economics and Administration, National Taipei University
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C.7 資料公開日期:2000-08-01
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1.土石流
2.不確定
3.交易成本
4.污染者付費原則
5.後常態科學
6.最小安全標準
7.預警污染者付費原則
8.預警原則
9.預警環境保證金制度
10.環境退化
1.Transaction Cost
2.Debris Flow
3.Environmental Degradation
4.Polluter Pays Principle
5.Post-normal Science
6.Precautionary Environmental Deposit-refund Bonding System
7.Precautionary Principle
8.Safe Minimum Standard
9.Uncertainty
為了預防與改善環境退化,或為了促進資源永續利用,決策者必需尋求有效 的政策工具來實現這些目標。市場取向或誘因基礎的政策工具一般被認同是達成環境目標較有效的方式,但此種管制取向經常難以處理環境不確定的課題。由於環境 系統的複雜性,導致科學研究者對於環境退化的相互關係仍難提供完全有效與可信的答案予決策者,而影響理性決策的有效性。近年來,許多國家採取「預警原則」 來回應環境複雜系統導致環境不確定的課題,此原則係藉由設定安全邊界來規避不可回轉損害的問題,即在預期潛在環境損害便採取若干防止措施,而非等待確定損 害後再採取行動。然而此種管理取向,經常缺乏有效的誘因促使環境資源使用者自動修正他們的行為朝向對環境友善的方向進行。 為了改善這種兩難困境,必需有新的管理取向來回應此現象,連結污染者付費原則與預警原則的「預警污染付費原則」(4P)便是此理念下的產物,在此理念下污 染者不僅需支付已知的損害成本,而且需為不確定的損害負責。預警污染者付費原則,在理念上雖有助於預防或降低環境損害並處理環境不確定的課題,但國內僅著 重在污染者付費原則(3P)的應用,然而3P方式對於環境不確定的處理常顯得「有心無力」。因此在面對環境退化的複雜性與不確定性時,我們的環境管理決策 準則與程序必需適度調整來回應這些情況,預警污染者付費原則或許可在環境不確定管理的「死巷」中提供一條「出路」。因此本文以此管理取向為思考主軸,納入 後常態科學與最小安全標準理念,界定預警環境保證金制度的適用範圍,並利用交易成本相關概念,探討一般環境政策工具與預警環境保證金制度的內涵,並提出預 警環境保證金制度於土石流管理可思考的方向。 基於程序理性的考量,本研究納入一般人民對環境與土石流管理態度的評價,利用Wilcoon型態與卡方統計檢測結果顯示:環境污染改善迫切性顯著高於環境 風險與資源保育,管理決策應首重災害風險降低,此決策準則優先性顯著高於其他準則,就設定環境標準與課徵環境稅管理方式而言,受訪者較偏好設定環境標準方 式,對現今環境與土石流管理皆感到不滿意,認為應採取比現在更嚴格的管理方式。

In order to prevent and eliminate environmental degradation, or promote sustainable resource use, policy-making must seek to effective regulatory instruments to realize these objectives. The market-oriented or incentivebased regulatory instruments are gaining acceptance are more efficiency ways to achieve environmental objectives. But this approach is often limited for dealing with environmental degradation issues under uncertainty. Recently, a variety of countries have advocated adoption of a \"precautionary principle\" to deal with the problem of true uncertainty. The principle seeks to avoid irreversible damages via the imposition of a safety margin into policy, it states that rather than await uncertainty, regulators should act in anticipation of any potential environmental harm in order to prevent it. But the approach is often weakly effective incentives to environmental resources users to modify their behavioral patterns in environmentally friendlier directions. A new approach is \"precautionary polluter pays principle\"(4P), which extends the polluter pays principle to make the polluter pays for uncertainty as well. This research uses the approach and incorporates the \"post-normal science\", \"safe minimum standard\", and \"transaction cost\" paradigms to discuss a precautionary environmental depositrefund bonding system in the management of environmental degradation under uncertainty. In Addition, this study adopts attitude surveys to analyzes environment and debris-flow management attitudes with Wilcoxon-type and chi-square tests. Empirical results are as follows: The statistical tests indicate that environmental pollution control significant higher important than environmental risk and resource conservation, that risk reduction decision criteria is significant higher weight than other criterion, and that respondents preference of setting environmental standards over environmental taxes. In terms of management satisfaction and intent, respondents fell dissatisfaction and consider should adopt more strict regulatory instruments than current regulating activities.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:2001-01-10
D.17 預定釋出日期:2001-08-01
D.18 初次釋出日期:2001-08-01
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2001-08-01
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E88081-1
追蹤清單
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