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唯智功績主義與正義之衝突:台灣升學主義改革的兩難困境與挑戰
Intellectual Meritocracy versus Justice Conflict: A Dilemma and A Challenge for Diploma-Disease Reform in Taiwan
1.何英奇
1.Ying-chyi Ho
1.國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導系 (所)
1.Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, National Taiwan Normal University
001,002,003,004
1.國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導系 (所)
1.Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, National Taiwan Normal University
002
1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):1997-07-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):1999-02-28
1997-08-011998-02-28
A.16 收到日期:1999-02-05
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1.學生家長台北市龍安國小、台中縣龍安國小、花蓮縣花崗國中及台東高中等校學生家長。 2.教師:台灣師大暑期在職進修班教育、心輔、英語等研究所學員及教育系學士後教育學分班學員。 3.大學生:台灣師大、政大、輔仁、淡江、文化、台北護理學院等大學院校。

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C.2 聯絡日期:1999-02-08
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1.國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導系 (所)
1.Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, National Taiwan Normal University
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C.7 資料公開日期:0000-00-00
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1.升學主義
2.文憑主義
3.功績主義
4.正義
5.質性研究
1.Credentialism Meritocracy
2.Justice
3.Qualitative Study
本研究旨在探討台灣「升學主義」、「文憑主義」與聯考制度之深層的社會文化意涵及其社會心理機制,研究方式採深度晤談、新聞媒體內容分析及問卷調查。晤談對 象包括學生、家長與教育人員等三類新聞媒體內容採自國內各大報紙問卷調查對象則包括學生家長、教師、大學生共1060名。綜合量化與質化資料分析的結果, 得出下列結論: 1. 半數以上受訪者持有唯智功績主義(meritocracy的教育觀,這種教育觀反映社會達爾文思想,也與傳統士大夫觀念有關。 2. 升學主義與聯考制度的流弊正是唯智功績主義教育觀的具體表現。功績主義原本是為打破特權,追求社會正義,最後反而變成強調自 由競爭、弱肉強食,蠶蝕社會正義。 3. 聯考的形式上公平性過度被強調,反映台灣社會公正性的匱乏,有 其深遠的社會文化心理基礎。聯考公平性的重視反而妨害聯考流弊之改革。例如,最近推行的推甄、申請制已出現公平性的疑慮,未 來如沒有妥善改進,恐怕有被擱置,再走回聯考的老路。在台灣, 任何升學革案如未顧及「公平性」,很難成功。 4. 廣設高中、大學政策是否是最有效之消除升學主義流弊的方法,尚須嚴加評估。且它連帶引發的問題也不能忽視,須審慎加以檢視。 5. 教育資源的分配須在「卓越、菁英、成長」的目標和「正義」目標間的兩難衝突中取得適當平衡。 根據以上結論提出適當的建議,提供升學主義改革的參考。

The purpose of this study was to investigate the social cultural meanings and social psychological mechanism of credentialism (diploma-disease) and the United College Entrance Examination System (UCEES) in Taiwan. Survey, in-depth interview, and news media content were used to collect data. The subjects include college students, parents, and teachers. Based on the findings of qualitative and qualitative analyses, some conclusions were drawn as follows: 1. Over half of the subjects held the educational point of view of intellectual meritocracy, which reflected social Darwinism and also related to the traditional thought of intellectual class. 2. Credentialism and UCEES were the reflections of intellectual meritocratic education selection. Originally they were against the privileged. However, their stronger emphasis on superficial equality and fairness had turned out to be social injustice. Similarly, the current new system of education selection, recommendation and application programs, was found to be unfair and injustice. Any reform of education selection in Taiwan despise fairness was destined to be fail, which reflected the stronger need of social justice in Taiwanese cultural and psychological context. 3. Proposal of the expansion of senior high school and college admission seems a solution of fierce competition, but its side effects should be seriously re-evaluated from the economic point of view, such as diploma inflation and unemployment, and social cultural context. 4. The resource distribution of education should be re-evaluated how to solve the dilemma between excellence (or elite, growth) and justice in Taiwanese social cultural context. Based on these concluding, recommendations for education selection reforms were suggested.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:1999-08-12
D.17 預定釋出日期:2001-03-01
D.18 初次釋出日期:2001-03-01
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2001-03-01
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E87129-1
http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/E87129
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