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E87090
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文化與幸福感:一項中英比較研究
Culture and Happiness: A Taiwan-Britain Comparison
1.陸洛
1.Luo Lu
1.高雄醫學院行為科學研究所
1.Graduate Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical College
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1.高雄醫學院行為科學研究所
1.Graduate Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical College
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1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):1997-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):1998-07-31
A.16 收到日期:1999-02-05
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高雄市大學生

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台灣:439 英國:344

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C.2 聯絡日期:1999-02-23
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1.高雄醫學院行為科學研究所
1.Graduate Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical College
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C.7 資料公開日期:2000-08-01
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1.文化
2.台灣
3.幸福感
4.社會文化
5.英國
6.跨文化研究
1.Britain
2.Cross-Cultural Study
3.Culture
4.Happiness
5.Social Culture
6.Taiwan
現 有的幸福感跨文化研究指出世界各國人民在自陳的主觀幸福感上存在明顯且實質的差異(如Diener等人,1995; Veenhoven,1995). 但是,一個嚴重的問題是,這些所謂的跨文化研究其實可能受到文化的限制.在幸福感的研究上,以西方文化為基礎而發展出來的測量工具用於世界各國,所得的資 料又在先驗的西方理論架構中進行分析,因而,「去中心化」(Brislin, 等人,1973)的疑慮相當嚴重.另一方面,現有的跨文化比較也發現,在控制了相關的預測因子後,個人主義取向是唯一持續與幸福感有關的因素 (Diener等人,1995).但是,這個研究同樣也是以西方為中心的,故而,西方式的個人主義與西方式的個人中心的幸福感有相關,似乎並不足奇.如果 要平衡這樣的文化偏頗,似乎應該分別從東方和西方的文化角度來發展幸福感的測量工具,再將之使用於東方和西方的社會;並且,在上述測量工具的文化平衡考量 之後,直接探討「文化」(如文化中的價值)與幸福感的關聯.基於對現有跨文化研究的文化偏頗的反思,本研究計劃擬比較一個典型的東方文化(台灣社會)和一 個典型的西方文化(英國社會),研究目的主要是分析文化價值與幸福感的關聯,並在控制了已知的幸福感相關因素(如人格特質)後,探討以文化價值解釋幸福感 跨文化差異的可行性.具體而言,本計劃擬在台灣和英國的大學生中(二至四年級),分別收集200位男生和200位女生的資料,採結構式問卷,團體匿名施 測.問卷的核心部分是兩份文化價值的測量(一份以東方文化為基礎,一以西方文化為基礎),和兩份主觀幸福感的測量(同樣一以東方文化,另一以西方文化為基 礎).同時還將評量外向,神經質,內外控人格和社會期待傾向,以為研究的控制變項.研究資料將以SPSS for Windows和LISREL 7處理,描述性統計,變異量分析,族群比較(如中,英比較和性別差異),相關分析和複回歸分析均將嘗試.另外,也將利用線性結構的模式的技術,尋找各個次 團體中最能解釋幸福感差異的實證結構模式.

Regarded as a "basic building block, a value in terms of which other values are justified" (Braithwaite & Law, 1985), happiness may be considered universal, but its meaning remains complex and ambiguous. Cultural values can be a major force constructing the conception of happiness and consequently constricting its subjective experiences. This study directly examined the relationships between cultural values and experiences of happiness in two different nations, using a measurement of values derived from the bountiful legacy of the Chinese culture, and a measurement of SWB balanced for sources of happiness salient in the East and the West. Such an effort was hoped to rectify the de-centring concern prevailing in the existing literature of cross-cultural research on happiness. 439 college students (230 males and 209 females) from a typical Eastern culture (Taiwan) and 344 students (161 males and 183 females) from a typical Western one (Britain) took part in the study. Results indicated that although the general patterns were similar in the two samples, relationships between values and happiness were stronger in Taiwan than in Britain. In hierarchical regression, cultural values could predict happiness even after personality traits were controlled among the Chinese, whereas predictive powers of cultural values were weaker among the British. Further analyses revealed that the effects of "Social integration" and "Human heartedness" as cultural values on happiness were culture-dependent, whereas that of "Confucian work dynamism" was culture-general. There were also consistent lateral differences on happiness between the two cultures, as well as certain gender differences. These results were discussed in the framework of culture as a shaping force of human ideas and experiences.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:1999-11-24
D.17 預定釋出日期:2000-08-01
D.18 初次釋出日期:2000-08-18
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2000-08-18
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E87090-1
https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=https://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/E87090
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