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兒童與青少年審美能力發展之調查研究:探討在描述,表示喜好,和判斷繪畫作品時的觀念傾向
Children\'s and Adolescents\' Conceptions in Describing, Preferring, and Judging Works of Art
1.陳瓊花
1.Chiung-hua Chen
1.國立臺灣師範大學美術學系
1.Department of Fine Arts, National Taiwan Normal University
001,002,003,004
1.國立臺灣師範大學美術學系
1.Department of Fine Arts, National Taiwan Normal University
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1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):1997-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):1998-07-31
A.16 收到日期:1999-02-08
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高中以下教育階段:台北市與金門地區之公立國民中小學與高級中學 大學美術專業與非專業科系:台北市地區之國立大學

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單一解答樣本:517 多元解答樣本:856


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C.2 聯絡日期:1999-02-08
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1.國立臺灣師範大學美術學系
1.Department of Fine Arts, National Taiwan Normal University
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C.7 資料公開日期:2000-08-01
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1.兒童
2.青少年
3.美感教育
4.審美能力
5.藝術發展
1.Aesthetic Concept
2.Aesthetic Education
3.Aesthetic Reasoning
4.Asthetic Skill
5.Conception
6.Description
7.Judgment
8.Preference
兒 童與青少年審美觀念之研究,試圖探討兒童與青少年在處理有關美感物象時的思考與理念。此一問題的研究,可提供兒童與青少年在面對藝術及其生活時,漸進性成 長的訊息。在教學上,教師如果能對此一問題有較深層的認識與瞭解,則其無論是在課程的安排、教材的準備,與策略的運用,必將能更有自信,並為青少年結組與 建構一良好的學習環境。依據國外有關兒童與青少年審美觀念之研究指出,兒童與青少年藝術觀念之成長與其認知之發展有關,並受社會與文化因素之影響。基於此 一認識,本研究試圖經由美感問題之架構,檢視我國兒童與青少年的審美觀念,以提出我國兒童與青少年思考藝術的基本發展論點。因此,本研究之目的在於明瞭不 同年齡層之兒童與青少年與美術專業別之大學生有關: (1) 描述繪畫作品時的觀念傾向,(2) 表示喜好繪畫作品時的觀念傾向,(3) 判斷繪畫作品時的觀念傾向,(4) 表示喜好與價值判斷之間的區別。517位學生隨機取樣自台北金門地區之國小1,3,5年級,國中1,3年級,高中2年級,及台北之大學美術專業與非專業學 生。大致上,男、女學生各為半數。研究結果發現, 問題的類型,影響學生所作的評論內容,不同年級層的學生使用不同的審美觀念於描述,表示喜好,與價值判斷等的不同問題。多數的學生傾向於以題材來描述寫實 與表現性的作品,而以視覺要素來描述抽象性的作品;對於表現性的掌握,隨著年級的增長而遞增;當要求大學以下的學生描述繪畫作品時,抽象性與表現性的作品 較寫實性的作品更能引發學生豐富的回應。當面對表現性與抽象性的作品回答喜好與與判斷之問題時,學生較易產生質疑,而述及有關認知與否的想法。不同年級層 的學生對於繪畫作品的喜好與價值判斷的選擇,以及表示喜好和價值判斷的首要觀念之間有顯著性的差別,不因作品類型的不同而有差異;專業別、對於繪畫作品的 喜好與價值判斷的選擇三者之間,只在面對表現性作品時,有顯著的不同,因作品類型的不同而有別;而專業別、喜好與判斷的首要觀念三者之間並沒有差別,不因 作品類型的不同而有別;至於美術專業的大學生在表示喜好與判斷的觀念時並沒有差異。個體理由的表達所呈現出來的觀念,具有穩定性的內在認知結構上的特質。 本研究結果可補充美學家奧詩本 (Osborn, 1971) 有關喜好與判斷之審美學理,並建立我國鑑賞教學之基礎理論。

This objective of this paper to explore how children and adolescents of different grade levels: 1)describe works of art, 2)the manners in which they state their preferences, 3)what kind of criteria they use for judging works of art, 4) the differences between the preferences and judgments they made in responding to works of art. Five hundred and seventeen students, in grade first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, and university students (included art major and non- art major), were randomly selected from three public schools in Taipei, three schools in Kinman, and one university in Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. Approximately half of the students were girls and half were boys in each group. Each subject was requested to respond to three types of paintings by answering three structures interview quesstions. These works are one of Vermeer\'s realistic paintings, the \"La Laitiere\", one of Chagall\'s expressive paintings, the \"I and The Village\", and one of Kandisky\'s abstract paintings, the \"Composition VIII\". Pearson\'s X2 analysis was used to test the hypothesis that students\' preferences and judgments do not depend on grade levels. G2 analysis was used to test the independency among grade, preference, and judgment. Kappa analysis was used to understand the agreement among five judges. The findings indicate that most students tend to identify subject matters when describing realistic and expressive works of art, and tend to identify visual elements when describing abstract work of art. The description of expressiveness of a picture increase along with grade levels. For the students under universiity level, expressive and abstract works of works of art are more provocative. Their responses to these works of art are more rich. When students state their preferences about realistic and expressive works, first and third graders focus on the subject matter, and fifth, seventh, and ninth graders count on expression. When students state their preferences about abstract work, first and third graders think beauty/reality is important, and fifth and seventh graders consider cognition, ninth graderss emphasize on expression and beauty/reality. The students after ninth grade depend on the expression of a picture no matter the types of art works. The statements students made for their preference were significant with grade. For judging a work of art, first graders rely on subject matter in a realistic work, and visual elements in expressive and abstract works. Third graders think of both subject matter and beauty/reallity in a realistic work, and only beauty/reality in expressive and abstract work. Fifth grader recognize the beauty/reality in a realistic work, expressiveness in an expressive work, and cognition in an abstract work. Most seventh graders and university students concern with expressiveness in realistic and expressive works, and form design in an abstract work. the expressiveness is important at both ninth and eleventh graders no matter the types of works. When facing expressive or abstract works, more students point out the understanding of the work. The statements students made for their judgements were significant with grade. Except reasoning, there are disparities of students\' voting between preferences and judgements. The differences between the preferences a judgments students\' made were sognificant with grade in three types of works, but not with profession. Even students in first grade differentiate the reasons for their personal preferences and evaluation a work of art. The differentiation might dismiss when students have art expertise. There is no significant difference between the preferences and judgments made by university students with art major. The concepts of students\' reasoning for their preference and judgement have concrete structures that rarely influences by types of works. As a result, students of each grade level present different aesthetic skills and concepts in describing, preferring, and judging a work of art. questions used to solicit the responses influences the types of comments the subject made. The specific changes of responding may emerge when questionss are posed differently.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:1999-08-04
D.17 預定釋出日期:2000-08-01
D.18 初次釋出日期:2000-08-01
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:2000-08-01
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E87089-1
http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/E87089
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