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E87007
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成年人對中老年生活發展印象之探討研究
The Study of Adults' Images of Midlife and Later Life Development
1.李良哲
1.Liang-jei Lee
1.國立政治大學心理系
1.Department of Psychology, National Cheng Chi University
001,002,003,004
1.國立政治大學心理系
1.Department of Psychology, National Cheng Chi University
002
1.行政院國家科學委員會
1.National Science Council
A.14 計畫執行期間(起):1997-08-01
A.14 計畫執行期間(訖):1998-07-31
A.16 收到日期:1999-02-05
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505

505
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C.2 聯絡日期:1999-02-06
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1.國立政治大學心理系
1.Department of Psychology, National Cheng Chi University
1
C.7 資料公開日期:1998-08-01
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008
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001
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1.中年生活發展
2.印象
3.老年生活發展
4.知覺變化
1.Images
2.Later Life Development
3.Midlife Development
4.Perceived Change
本研究的主要目的在於探討國內成年人對中年人與老年人的生活經驗與人格特質知覺印象變化情形,並瞭解在評估中年人與老年人的生活經驗與人格特質時是否有年 齡、性別、社經地位差異現象。瞭解國內成年人對人生中年期起迄年齡與中年危機的看法、對中、老年人感到煩惱而有壓力的事情與對中、老年人行為與心理特性的 描述也是本研究的目的。研究以台灣地區北、中、南部505位成年人(255位男性,250位女性;158位老年人,175位中年人,172位年輕成年人) 為研究對象。受試者首先回答開放式的問題關於中年期起迄年齡與中年危機的看法、對中、老年人感到煩惱壓力的事情與對中、老年人行為與心理特性的描述。然 後,受試者在結構式量表中進行對中、老年人在各生活領域壓力大小、各生活課題表現高低、各特質屬性性質的評估。 研究結果顯示出國內成年人多數認為40歲是中年的開始,60歲是中年的結束時期。國內成年人同意有中年危機所持較明顯的理由包括事業、家庭、婚姻、經濟、 身體健康與社會的壓力,而不同意有中年危機的成年人並不是否認中年危機的存在,而是把危機看成是轉機。由國內成年人認為中年人的生活中較為明顯的煩惱而有 壓力的事情與中年人較為明顯的行為與心理特性顯示,在國內成年人的印象中,中年人扮演照顧家庭老小的角色,而積極有責任的努力於工作事業的經營,但卻憂心 身體健康的衰退與老化。由國內成年人認為老年人的生活中較為明顯的煩惱而有壓力的事情與老年人較為明顯的行為與心理特性顯示,在國內成年人的印象中,老年 人遭遇到許多的失落,包括身體健康、社會地位、人際關係、親情、工作角色的失落,且表現出一些負向、不可欲的行為特質。 由國內成年人對中、老年人在各生活領域壓力、各生活課題表現、各特質屬性的評估結果顯示,在國內成年人的印象中,中年人是活得比老年人多煩惱、擔憂與辛 苦,但中年人比老年人活得積極有能,中年人的得比失多,而老年人的失比得多。由中年期到老年期的人生歷程中失去了勝任能力、適應環境的能力、積極的生命力 與理性的智慧能力,只是得到了對人道的同理關懷能力,且顯示出悲觀消極的人生態度。 國內成年人對中、老年人在各生活領域壓力、各生活課題表現、各特質屬性的評估,年齡差異的現象比性別、社經地位差異現象明顯。這些評估的年齡差異現象可以 由年輕成年人沒有經歷中、老年生活經驗的發展觀點、中年人的正向自我期許、老年人會與現時的老年生活現狀比較與老年人在評估老年人時的自我防衛心態予以解 釋。少數顯示出有性別差異與社經地位差異現象的評估,適合以同性別或同社經地位的人的生活認知基模做為評估中、老年人的基礎來加以解釋。

The main purposes of this study are to investigate the perceived images change between middle-aged adults and older adults in a sample of adults of Taiwan society and to examine whether rating target subjects' life experience and traits show age differences, sex differences, and social economic status differences. The other purposes of this study are to explore when do subjects think adults enter and exit middle age, whether they think there is such a thing as midlife crisis, and subjects' description of distressed, stressful events and typical behaviors, traits of middle-aged and older adults. A sample of 505 adults(255 males, 250 females;158 older adults, 175 middle-aged adults, 172 young adults)of broad Taiwan area are interviewed. First, subjects answer open questions concerning about when do they think the entrance and exit age of middle-aged adult, how do they think about midlife crisis, what do they describe the distressed, stressful events and typical behaviors, traits of middle-aged and older adults. then subjects rate structured scales pertaining to amount of stress in life domains, salience of life course issues, and nature of personal attributes for middle-aged and older targets. The results show that there is some consensus as to when midlife begins and ends. The majority of adults think 40 years old is the median year of entry and 60 years old is the median year of exit. Adults who agree the issue of midlife crisis hold the most prominent reasons for midlife crisis including work career, family, marriage, economic, physical health, and social stresses. Adults who disagree the issue of midlife crisis do not deny the fact of midlife crisis rather than treat midlife crisis as chances of changing to better life. On the basis of the results of subjects' perception of the most prominent distressed, stressful events and typical behaviors, traits of middle-aged and older adults reveal that middle-aged adults in Taiwan society play the role of taking care of family members and devote to work career responsibly but rather worry about the decline of physical health and aging; older adults in Taiwan society encounter lots of loss including physical health, social status, interpersonal relationships, relatives contact, and work role losses and show some negative, undesirable traits. Based on the results of subjects' rating of amount of stress in life domains, salience of life course issues, and nature of personal attributes for middle-aged and older adults reveal that middle-aged adults are more distressed, worrying, and hardworking in living than older adults but middle-aged adults are more positive and energetic in living than older adults. Middle-aged adults are gains more and losses less, but older adults are gains less and losses more. The life course from middle age to old age loses the ability of competence, adjusting to environment, active energies, and rational intelligence, but gains the ability of humanity and shows pessimistic, negative attitudes toward life. Age differences in rating target subjects' life experience and traits are more obvious than sex differences and social economic status differences. Those age differences in rating can be explained by developmental perspectives which contend that young adults do not have life experience of middle-aged and older adults, middle-aged adults' positive self-expectation, older adults' contrasting with current old age living, and older adults' self-defensiveness. A little sex differences and social economic status differences in rating are pertain to be explained by subjects' rating middle-aged and older adults with their cognitive schema of the same sex or social economic status adults' life.

D.16 完成檢誤日期:1999-05-31
D.17 預定釋出日期:1999-06-22
D.18 初次釋出日期:1999-06-22
D.19_1 最新版釋出日期:1999-06-22
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10.6141/TW-SRDA-E87007-1
http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw/webview/index.jsp?object=http://efenci.srda.sinica.edu.tw:80/obj/fStudy/E87007
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